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Jewish Heritage: The Oral Histories - Cuba Family Archives
  • About the Taylor Oral History Collection at the Breman Museum

    The Taylor Oral History Collection at the Breman consists of a thousand oral histories that document Jewish life in Georgia and Alabama. There are four main categories: Atlanta Jewish History, Georgia Jewish History, Alabama Jewish History, and Holocaust Survivors. The oral histories that are featured on our website have been transcribed to a professional level. These oral histories only constitute a small percentage of our collection. A star next to the name denotes an interview that contains historical information that is core to our mission and unique to the Southern Jewish experience or th...

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  • Adair, Irving

    Irving discusses the death of his parents when he was very young and the enormous role his older brother, Abe, has played in his life. He talks about living with his cousins after his parents died, and then living with his brother, after Abe got married. Irving talks about living in the Washington Street area of Atlanta where they walked from place to place or rode the streetcar for a dime. He talks fondly of growing up in the Jewish community, enjoying sports, and developing a circle of Jewish friends. From the time he moved in with his brother, to getting married, and eventually buying a home of his own, Irving moved further and further north in the Atlanta area. Interestingly, there are some parallels here with the migration of the Jewish population in the city. Irving reflects on the changes in the way business is conducted during his lifetime, from essentially a horse and buggy, personal approach to faxes and phone calls. He also talks about the decline in the percentage of Jewish merchants, and the decimation of the Jewish wholesale business area around Pryor Street in Atlanta's downtown area, where his family business was originally located.

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  • Adilman, Leah Blair

    Leah Ethel Blair was born in Savannah, Georgia on March 1, 1921. Her parents were Sam and Maggie Morris Blair. Her father was a Hungarian immigrant and her mother was born in Savannah. Leah grew up on the corner of 36th and West Broad Streets in Savannah, and attended Savannah Public Schools, graduating from Savannah High School in 1938. After high school graduation, she moved to Philadelphia to attend college at the University of Pennsylvania. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania as a dental hygienist and moved back to Savannah, becoming one of the first dental hygienists in the area during World War II. During this time, she met her future husband, Michael "Mike" Adilman (1914-2002), a Canadian-born Israeli citizen who was volunteering with the United States Army at Ft. Stewart. They married in 1942 and he became a successful accountant and real-estate developer. Both Leah and Mike were involved in Zionist and Jewish causes their entire adult lives, and were members of the B'nai B'rith Jacob Synagogue in Savannah. The couple had three children, Nancy Adilman Gallant (b. 1944), Roy Adilman (b. 1947), and Maxine Adilman Perlman (b. 1956). Leah passed away on January 26, 2007 at age 85.

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  • Alexander, Cecil

    Cecil Alexander was born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1918 to Cecil Alexander Sr. and Julia Moses Alexander. He was a renowned architect and was active in the social and political life of the Atlanta community during the Civil Rights era. He is a graduate of Yale and Harvard Universities. Cecil was active in Atlanta city planning and growth and designed the new state flag of Georgia. He was married to Hermoine Weil Alexander until 1983 when she was killed in a car accident. After her death, he remarried Helen Eisemann. He and Hermoine had four children: Judith Alexander Augustine, Douglas Alexander, and Therese Alexander Milkey. Cecil discusses his ancestors dating back to 1760 and his early life in Atlanta. He talks about his work as an architect and his eventual retirement. Cecil discusses his involvement in city planning and the Civil Rights Movement and the changes in Atlanta over his lifetime. He recalls the 1983 car crash that killed his wife, Hermoine Weil Alexander, and the impact it had on him. He also discusses his second marriage to Helen Eiseman Alexander.

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  • Alexander, Helen Eisemann

    Helen's mother, Josephine Lowenstein, was born in Atlanta, Georgia, and her father, Alexander Eisemann was from New York City, New York. Helen was born at home in Manhattan, New York City, New York, on January 13, 1992, and she had one younger brother. In 1922, her father started the Freed-Eisemann Radio Corp., which manufactured some of the first radios in the country. He was outspoken against antisemitism and was one of the founders of the Anti-Defamation League. In 1947, at age 25, Helen took a trip with her mother to Atlanta, visiting for the first time. On that trip, she met and married Arthur Harris and never returned to New York. They had two sons and one daughter. After they divorced, Helen married Marshall Mantler, and they had one daughter. They divorced, and Helen then married Cecil Alexander. Helen started the Speech and Hearing Clinic in Atlanta to help black children with aphasia and other speech and hearing disorders.

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  • Alterman, Chippie

    Chippie Rubin Alterman was born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1917, but her parents emigrated from Russia and Poland. Chippie was active in the community and was a member of a number of Jewish organizations, including Young Judaea, Hadassah, Brandeis University National Women's Committee, Temple Sisterhood, and United Jewish Appeal. She describes Jewish life in Atlanta during the mid-twentieth century.

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  • Amiel, Lydia Sarda

    The Amiels came to Atlanta from Crete and Cairo, Egypt in 1905.  They were the first Sephardic couple to settle permanently in Atlanta, where they joined a handful of Sephardic men already here. This interview is, in large part, about Lydia’s father-in-law and mother-in-law, Rebecca and Ralph [Raphael] Amiel.

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  • Amir, Frieda

    Frieda (Fradel) Kiwetz was born in Zbaraz, Poland on May 6, 1921. She recalls growing up in a very strict, religious environment, her exposure to Zionism, and her interactions with non-Jewish Poles. She also discusses her Holocaust experience and immigration to the United States and settling in Atlanta, Georgia.

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  • Arbiser, Pola Bienstock

    Pola introduces her family at the time World War II began. She details her family's relationship with their Polish maid/nanny. Pola describes the two years spent in hiding and liberation. Pola outlines her family's post-war experiences and move to Israel. She reflects upon her experiences in the United States compared to her years spent in Israel.

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  • Arenson, Cecile Kelly

    Cecile Kelly was born on March 26, 1908 to Frances "Frankie" J. Oppenheim Kelly (1887-1966) and Lawrence Patrick Kelly (1881-1956), both natives of Savannah. Her mother was Jewish and her father was Catholic. Cecile and her seven siblings were raised in the Jewish faith as devoted members of Congregation Mickve Israel. As a youth, she was highly athletic and played basketball and tennis at both Richard Arnold Junior High School and Savannah High School, and handball on the beach. In addition to sports, Cecile Kelly was employed as a referee for the Savannah Department of Parks and Recreation until the end of World War II, as well as in the store owned by her family and the U.S. Marine Hospital. She married Michael "Mike" Arenson (1915-1988), a native of Talbotton, Georgia who grew up in Newark, Delaware, in January of 1952 and they moved to Newark to work in his family's department store. They lived in Delaware for eight years before moving to Cordele, Georgia, where they opened Arenson's Shoe Store. They ran the store until 1979, when they moved back to Cecile's hometown of Savannah for her health. Cecile and Mike Arenson were married for 36 years until his death in 1988, and did not have any children. Cecile Kelly Arenson died on December 28, 2006 at the age of 98.

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  • Arkin, Murray

    Murray Charles Arkin was born in Savannah, Georgia on January 26, 1928, the youngest of four children born to Polish immigrants Ben Arkin (1889-1968) and Henrietta “Yetta” Fallick Arkin (1893-1964). His siblings were Claudia Arkin Kantsiper (1916-1991), Marvin Walter Arkin (1921-2009) and Marilyn Arkin Seeman (b. 1925). He attended Savannah Public Schools and the University of Georgia before enlisting in the United States Army in 1946. During his Army service, he joined the Occupation Forces in Japan where he served in the Field Artillery and later, the Medical Corps. It was during his time in Japan that Arkin decided to become a doctor. After his return from overseas, Arkin re-enrolled at the University of Georgia, where he joined the Tau Epsilon Phi Fraternity and graduated in 1949. After earning his bachelor’s degree, he enrolled in medical school at the Medical College of Georgia (now part of Augusta University) in Augusta, Georgia. After graduation, he did his internship at Minneapolis General Hospital in Minnesota, his residency at Hines Veterans Administration Hospital in Hines, Illinois and Presbyterian-St. Louis Hospital in Chicago, and his fellowship in internal medicine at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago. While studying in Chicago, he met his future wife, June (b. 1931), and they married in Chicago in 1956. Later, the couple moved back to Savannah where he began in private practice and then was an Internist at Memorial Medical Center (now Memorial University Medical Center) beginning in 1990. Arkin’s medical career lasted 47 years. In 1998, Dr. Arkin was awarded the highest honor in Savannah’s Jewish community, the Jack Malitz Levy Leadership Award, from the Savannah Jewish Federation. Murray and June Arkin have three sons, David (b. 1958), Lawrence (b. 1960), and Jonathan (b. 1967).

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  • Arnold, Phyllis Gershon

    Phyllis discusses the immigration of her family and their arrival in Atlanta. She describes her father's business and charity work, as well as Jewish life in Carrolton and Atlanta during the 1940s and 1950s. She recalls the effect of World War II and the Holocaust on her formative years. She details the tight-knit Jewish community in Atlanta during this time and the activities of Jewish youth, including dating, sports, philanthropy, and religious life. Ahavath Achim Synagogue is involved in a large part of her narrative. The interview covers her adulthood and the religious life of her own family. Though she describes her youth as a golden age for Jewish Atlanta, she remains firm in her belief of Atlanta as a haven for Jews.

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  • Arogeti, James

    James Arogeti was a Sephardic Jew. His family came from Turkey and Rhodes. His father, Behor (Jack) was a shoemaker. Behor (Jack) immigrated to the United States when he was 19 years old and later brought over the rest of his family. James had five siblings. James enlisted in the air force during World War II and served as a gunner on a B-17 based in England. On his return we went to Emory University and became an accountant. He opened his own accounting firm in 1952, which became Habif Arogeti & Wynne. James discusses his unique childhood and the relations between Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews in Atlanta. He discusses his childhood, education in public schools and religious education, his career and family. He also discusses intermarriage (between the Jewish sects), local rabbis and synagogues (Or Ve Shalmon and the Temple), the growth of the Jewish community in Atlanta, Sephardic customs and language, Jewish clubs and social life, and prominent Sephardic Jews in Atlanta.

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  • Arshanskaya, Zhanna

    Zhanna describes her early life growing up in Berdjansk and Kharkov, Ukraine and how her love of music developed. She details how life changed under Stalin and again when World War II began. After the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June of 1941, Zhanna recounts how the Jews of Kharkov were rounded up and then forced to march toward an unknown fate. She explains how her father bribed a guard so that she could escape. Zhanna considers the relationships between Jews and non-Jews in her childhood, the persecution her father experienced under Stalin, and how the Germans managed to get the Jews to submit. Zhanna recounts how a schoolmate's family took her in, reunited her with her sister, and helped them travel to another city under false identities. She outlines the journey she and her sister made before being forced to play piano for a troupe of dancers performing for German and Austrian soldiers. She tells how they travelled to Germany as the Soviet troops advanced. Zhanna recalls her first encounter with Americans when the war ended. She tells how the commander of a Displaced Persons [DP] camp adopted the sisters and sent them back to the United States. She describes how they adjusted to life in American, studied at the Juilliard School, and how she met her husband. She reflects on her amazing story of survival, with all its twists and turns, and the kind of life she made for herself and her two sons. She often refers to the book her son Greg wrote about her experience entitled, Hiding in the Spotlight. She considers what role Judaism plays in her present life and how her experiences inform her political perspective.

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  • Asher, Barbara Miller

    Barbara discusses the trajectory of her life to open the discussion. This includes some of her experiences growing up in a small, predominately Christian town with her family, leaving home to go to college in Louisiana, her life of public service in Atlanta, and her multiple city council races. After she gives this broad account of her life, Barbara answers questions from members of the Jewish Women of Achievement which cover such topics as the impact of her parents on her life, the importance or role models, the complications of public office, and her own family life.

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  • Asher, Esta Applebaum

    Esta Applebaum was born on October 22, 1918 in Savannah, Georgia. She was the daughter of Harry Aaron Applebaum (1894-1957) and Leah Cooper Applebaum (1892-1968), both immigrants from Eastern Europe. She was educated in Savannah public schools and a private business college. Not only was she a lifelong Savannah resident, but she was also a lifelong member of Congregation B'nai B'rith Jacob. Esta grew up in the close-knit Orthodox community in Savannah and met her future husband, Sidney Asher (1917-2006), as a child. Together, along with Sidney's brother, they opened Sidney's Shoe Store on Broughton Street, which later became Asher's Department Store. Esta served as office manager at Asher's until she and Sidney closed the store and retired in the 1980s. Esta and Sidney Asher had two children, Sheila (1942-1964) and Alan (b. 1948). Sheila and her fiancé were killed in a car accident near Macon, Georgia the weekend before their wedding in 1964. Alan went on to have two children. Esta Applebaum Asher died on April 14, 2011 at the age of 92.

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  • Asher, Thomas

    Thomas Asher was born in 1936 in Atlanta, Georgia, to Joseph Asher and Helen Elsas Asher. His great grandfather was Jacob Elsas, the founder of Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills. Jacob Elsas was also one of the founders of Georgia Institute of Technology, Grady Hospital, and the Temple. The Elsas family was originally from Germany. Thomas' mother and father were both born in Georgia. His parents began working at Rich's Department Store in the 1920s. His father was a buyer for menswear and his mother a lamp buyer. Thomas grew up in the Druid Hills area of Atlanta. He has one brother, Norman Asher. The Asher family were members of the Temple, a Reform congregation. Thomas attended Sunday school at the Temple but was not confirmed. Thomas graduated from Cornell University in 1958. After college, Thomas entered the United States Army. When he returned to Atlanta in 1959, he entered the investment business. He worked at Robinson Humphrey, Inc., for 25 years before going to Smith Barney, where he remained for over 46 years. He retired as senior advisor in 1999. Thomas married Rosalie Spring Savitt in 1959. She was from Hartford, Connecticut. They have three children, Joey, Juliet, and Hugh and several grandchildren.

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  • Balser, Barbara

    In this interview, conducted in four sessions over the course of 1988, Barbara Balser recounts her life story. Starting with some information on her mother and maternal grandparents lives, following into her eventful early childhood and upbringing in Richmond, Virginia, all the way through to her current life (at the time) as executive vice-president of Management Compensation Group. This includes her moving to Atlanta, her marriage and divorce with Robert Friedland, her career in life insurance sales, her remarriage to Ron Balser, her affinity for art collecting, and her long history of involvement with Temple Sinai.

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  • Balser, Meyer

    Meyer Balser was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1908 to Joseph Balser and Esther Mollie Seligman Balser. He was one of seven children. He and all of his siblings were born in the United States. His parents were born in Russia. His father and mother immigrated to the United States in the 1890s. They met and married in the United States. His family belonged to the Ahavath Achim Orthodox congregation. His father owned a grocery store in Atlanta. Meyer earned money selling newspapers as a youth during World War I. Meyer later worked as a traveling salesman before becoming a successful insurance salesman. He married Roslyn Stone in 1930. They have three children and several grandchildren.

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  • Baron, Albert

    Albert Baron was born in Nancy, France on October 6, 1934. Albert Baron describes fleeing with his family from Nancy, France in 1940 as the Germans began bombing and their further flight by train to a town near the base of the Pyrenees Mountains called Luchon, where they rented a small farm from a non-Jew. When the Barons moved to Atlanta, the city was beginning to grow, and although there were not many restaurants or synagogues, the Barons found less antisemitism and racism than they thought they would find. Albert discusses how his family joined the Temple, a reform congregation and sponsored a Russian Jewish family and how they try to help financially, especially with older Jews.

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  • Bases, Irene

    Irene discusses her early life in Krakow, Poland with her family and her decision to go to France for school when she was 17. When the war began in 1939, she describes her family’s experience of going to Wolbrom, Poland and hiding in the woods as the town’s Jewish population was eradicated. Irene discusses how the family returned to Krakow and later was sent to the Plaszow work camp where she describes work in an envelope factory, being beaten and placed in a bunker for punishment. Irene recalls her experience of working as a maid for a SS man and her work in a magazine with plentiful food that she was able to steal for her friends and family. Irene describes how her brother was killed in Plaszow and how her husband had the opportunity to go with a transfer of Jews to Brünnlitz as part of the Oskar Schindler Jews. She describes her transfer by foot to Auschwitz-Birkenau and being reassured by her angel, a friend from Krakow, that they were not being sent to the gas chambers but showers. From Auschwitz-Birkenau she recounts the transfer to Gröss-Rosen camp, Ravensbrück camp, Malchow camp, and Leipzig, Germany. In describing these camps, she recalls the sights, the sounds, and the experience of being a prisoner. In Leipzig, she describes being more or less freed from her captors after a three week death march when they refuse to go on. Irene describes how no one would help them in Germany and how they are attacked by Russian soldiers, many of the girls being raped. Irene recounts returning to Poland after the war and finding only her uncle and cousin still living and her subsequent unsuccessful quest to find her father at Theresienstadt. Irene discusses her religious life as a Jew, religion in the camps and reaction to the formation of the state of Israel. Irene also reflects on her hatred of Germans, receiving reparations from the Germans and her decision not to testify against the Nazi SS man that she worked for while in Plaszow.

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  • Baylinson, David

    Rabbi David Baylinson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1929 and was ordained as a rabbi in 1957 after earning a degree from Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio. He discusses being a student rabbi at Temple Beth-El in Anniston, Alabama, and this being his first experience in the south, where segregation was still in force. He mentions that while in Anniston he observed a Ku Klux Klan meeting. He discusses that he met several Holocaust survivors who were part of the Anniston congregation.

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  • Bearman, Howard

    Howard Bearman was born December 11, 1935, in Birmingham, Alabama. His grandparents immigrated to the United States from Kobryn, Poland, in the 1910’s. His father was born in Savannah, Georgia. The Bearman family came to Birmingham with a cousin, who was in the retail business. His father settled in Birmingham and opened Bearman’s Men’s clothing store in downtown Birmingham. Howard Bearman talks about the Bearman family, who immigrated from Kobryn, Poland, in the 1910’s. He recounts that his father is from Savannah, Georgia, and settled in Birmingham, Alabama, with a cousin who was in the retail business. He discusses his father’s store, Bearman’s Men’s clothing store, in downtown Birmingham. He reflects on working in the store from a young age. He speaks of having good relations with the black clientele.

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  • Beer, Hana

    Hana introduces her family and her life prior to the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. She describes being deported to Theresienstadt. Hana recounts what life was like in the camp-ghetto. Hana shares her memories of her mother's deportation. Hana discusses the German’s use of Thereseinstadt for propaganda. She describes how other practiced their religion in the camp-ghetto. She recalls falling ill before she was liberated in 1945. After liberation, Hana explains how she travelled back to Pilsen before coming to England and then the United States. She offers her perspective of why some survived and others did not. The interview ends with Hana stressing the significance of losing her entire family.

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  • Beer, Walter

    Walter begins his interview by describing the large and close family of his childhood. He explains the various professions in his family and gives some background on his father. He discusses the Jewish customs and traditions his family participated in and details his education and social life. He explains the first effects of the Nazi invasion on his family and being sent to do forced labor. He was eventually sent to the ghetto-camp Theresienstadt, where he spent the majority of the war. He describes the conditions and daily life of the ghetto, as well as the work he was forced to do for the German war effort. He later went voluntarily to Auschwitz to stay with his father and describes in detail the harrowing conditions there. After four days, he was transported to a labor camp where he was made to work in a munition factory. He survived a death march and was liberated by the Russian Army. Walter narrates his struggles to return to health after liberation, his return home, and learning of his father's death. He reunited with his brother and eventually immigrated to the United States. He discusses his life in the United States, his thoughts on Israel, and the persistence of anti-Semitism both in the U.S. and abroad.

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  • Berger, Edwin

    Edwin discusses the heritage of his family in Europe, his wife's family in North Carolina and Georgia. Edwin recounts his father's business in North Carolina and the reasons that they were forced to leave and come to Atlanta, Georgia. Edwin describes his life in Atlanta in terms of his education, his many jobs, his friends and the many well-known landmarks that he visited.

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  • Besser, Abe

    Abe introduces his family and the town he grew up in. He describes the impact of the German invasion on his family. He recounts how he volunteered for forced labor and the four camps he was sent to. Abe details the atrocities he witnessed. He relays the loss of his brothers, father, and extended family. Abe outlines his evacuation on a death march, liberation, and recuperation. He explains how he reunited with his sisters. Abe reflects on his arrival in the United States and becoming a citizen. Finally, he shares what he hopes will be the legacy of his story.

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  • Birnbrey, Henry

    Henry Birnbrey was born on November 29, 1923 in Dortmund, Germany. His father had served in World War I, had a small textile business, and was active in the Social Democratic Party. After the Nazi Party came to power in the 1930's and antisemitic actions increased, Henry's mother began applying for visas for Henry to leave Germany. In April 1938, Henry received a visa to the United States and arrived in Birmingham, Alabama. In January 1939, Henry settled in Atlanta, Georgia with the family of Fannie Asman and completed high school. Henry's father died in early 1939 after being arrested and severely beaten on Kristallnacht. Shortly afterward, Henry lost contact with his mother, who also died. After World War II began, Henry enlisted in the US Army in 1943. Henry was deployed to England in 1944 and served with the 30th Infantry division in Europe. He participated in the D-Day invasion at Omaha Beach and fought in the Battle of the Bulge. In the spring of 1945, his division crossed the Rhine Rover in Germany and quickly advanced to Magdeburg, Germany on the Elbe River, where they joined Russian forces in April of 1945. In the months immediately following the end of the war in Europe, Henry worked as an interpreter in counter-intelligence interviews. After a short occupation period, he was sent home to the United States with his division in August 1945. After he returned to Atlanta, Henry opened an accounting firm and attended law school at Georgia State University. He became active in Zionist organizations supporting the establishment of the state of Israel and in the Jewish community of Atlanta. He was integral in founding the Jewish Federation of Greater Atlanta and supporting the Greenfield Hebrew Academy. Henry remains very active in the Atlanta Jewish community and has shared his experiences with audiences all over the world, including his hometown.

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  • Blonder, Gerald

    Gerald A. (Jerry) Blonder was born in Port Chester, New York. His father was from Poland and was a milkman. Jerry discusses his life in Atlanta in the real estate business (commercial development) and the growth of the city and changes in the real estate business over the past 50 years. He and his wife, Lois, are major philanthropists to Jewish causes in Atlanta, including the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum.

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  • Blumberg, Janice Rothschild

    Janice Oettinger Rothschild Blumberg was born in Atlanta on February 13, 1924. In 1946 she met and married Jacob Rothschild, the rabbi at the Temple. After the leading the congregation through a time of transition, growth and controversy, Rabbi Rothschild died suddenly of a heart attack on New Year's Eve in 1973. In 1975, Janice married insurance executive David Blumberg who served as president of B'nai B'rith International. They lived in Washington, D.C. After her second husband passed away, Janice remained in Washington, D.C. until she returned to Atlanta in 2009. Janice is active in Jewish community and civic activities and has held leadership positions in numerous organizations including the B'nai B'rith Klutznick Museum, American Jewish Historical Society, and the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington. She served as President of the Southern Jewish Historical Society.

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  • Bornstein, Manuela

    Manuela Mendels Bornstein was born in Paris, France in 1933. She was the eldest of two daughters born to an assimilated, middle class family. Her father had extended family in the Netherlands and her mother's family was in Germany. Following the German occupation of France, her family began to feel the effects of anti-Jewish measures. When roundups and deportations began in 1942, Manuela, her younger sister and parents fled to Vichy France with the help of the Resistance. They settled in a small village in southern France, where they remained throughout the war. In 1943, a brother was born. After the Allies liberated Paris in 1944, the family returned to their lives in the Paris suburbs. In 1960, Manuela immigrated to the United States, married, had two children. She eventually settled in Atlanta, Georgia, where she is active in sharing her experiences with school children.

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  • Botnick, Marvin

    Marvin Zachariah Botnick was born on May 10, 1934 in New Orleans, Louisiana. He was the son of Molly Eisenstat Botnick and Harry Botnick. He lived in Hattiesburg, Mississippi throughout his childhood, where his father operated a dry goods store, Emporium Department Store. He had one brother, Dr. Robert 'Bob' Stanley Botnick. He attended public school until enrolling at Phillips Exeter Academy, a private boarding school in New Hampshire. He graduated from Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and relocated to Atlanta to pursue a career in finance, first as a commercial loan officer at First National Bank of Atlanta and later, as president of Mercantile National Bank. He is editor and publisher of the Jewish Georgian,a bi-monthly newspaper in Atlanta, Georgia. He was treasurer and president at The Temple, treasurer for the Jewish Children's Service, and a board member at the Atlanta Jewish Community Center and Whitehead Boys Club. He and his wife Miriam Pass Botnick are the parents of three children: Beth Ann Botnick Rosenberg, Karen Botnick Paz, and Harris Jeffrey Botnick.

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  • Breman, Elinor Angel ★

    Elinor Angel Breman was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee in 1922. Her family belonged to a Reform temple and her parents were active in the synagogue. Elinor participated in Ballyhoo in Atlanta where she met her future husband, Herbert Jerome (Herb) Rosenberg, Jr. In Atlanta, Elinor participated in Jewish community organizations as well as in the art, theater and cultural world of Atlanta. She became a successful real estate agent and married M. William Breman, who died in 2002. She is actively involved in the Breman Museum today.

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  • Breman, M. William

    William Breman has been a resident of Atlanta since 1908 and is the founder of the Breman Steel Company.  He was both a participant and spectator of major Atlanta historical events including the flu epidemic of 1918, the bombing of the Temple, the civil rights movement, and the making of the moving  "Driving Miss Daisy."  He was a major philanthropist in all areas of Jewish communal life. With a lead gift of more than $2 million dollars, he made possible the creation of the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum, which opened in June of 1996 and currently occupies half of the Selig Center.  He married Sylvia Cecile Goldstein and had two children, James and Carol.

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  • Breman, Sylvia Goldstein

    Sylvia Goldstein Breman was born in 1911 in Rochester, New York. Sylvia tells about childhood, education, and meeting her husband M. William (Bill) Breman at the Temple in Rochester, New York.  She also recalls her marriage to Bill in 1934, moving to Atlanta, and their affiliation with the Temple in Atlanta.  She discusses her many years of volunteer services in Jewish organizations in Atlanta and Rochester.

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  • Brickman, Perry

    Dr. Perry Brickman describes growing up in an Orthodox Jewish community in Chattanooga, Tennessee with his mother, father, and sister. He describes his religious upbringing, his education in in public schools, and at Baylor School. He recounts his experiences in the military and at college as he earned his degree in dentistry and became an oral surgeon. He then shares the impact of his time at Emory University and the antisemitism he faced there, particularly as a result of the actions of John E. Buhler, Dean of Emory Dental School at the time. Perry tells of his courtship and marriage to Shirley Berkowitz and their life together raising three children while he built his practice as an oral surgeon in Decatur, Georgia. He also shares the many ways he and Shirley have been, and continue to be, active members of the Jewish community in Atlanta.

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  • Brickman, Shirley

    Shirley Berkowitz Brickman was born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1935. Her parents, Irving and Rose Berkowitz, owned a grocery store. Shirley grew up in their home above the store and also worked in it. She attended public schools and received her religious education in Sunday school. Her family belonged to Ahavath Achim congregation. She married, Stanley Perry Brickman, an oral surgeon in Atlanta. They have three children: Jeffrey, Lori and Teresa. Shirley has been active in many organizations in Atlanta includingHadassah, the Jewish Federation of Greater Atlanta, and the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum where she is a docent.

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  • Brook, Julian

    Julian Brook grew up in the 1960’s during the civil rights era in Birmingham, Alabama.  He was a pre-teen and teenager during that period.  He is a member of Temple Beth-El in Birmingham and is an active member in his community.  He has been a board member of United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, the Jewish Federation Allocation Committee, and other organizations.

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  • Bunnen, Lucinda

    Lucinda was interviewed twice by the National Council of Jewish Women: first in a group interview, and then in a one-on-one follow up interview. In the group interview Lucinda talks most about her mother, her life as a photographer, her relationship to her Jewish identity, and her relation to her family. In the follow up interview she helps clarify some points, as well as elaborating on her father's life, her relationship with her sister, and her work in philanthropy.

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  • Bunzl, Frances

    Frances Bunzl was born on March 22, 1920, and grew up in Germany with her parents and younger brother. Her family was well-to-do, and her parents, Ann Kahn and Arthur Abraham Hamburger, were very active in the Jewish community, especially her mother. In her late teens Frances left Germany, first for England, then for the United States. Her brother had left before her, settling in Elberton, Georgia. After each of the children had struck out on their own, Bunzl's mother, father, and maternal grandmother also immigrated to the United States. In the states the women of the family all continued to have impressive service careers, and Frances married Walter Bunzl, an Austrian immigrant. The two had two children together, Richard and Susan (or Susie). The Bunzl's also started a travel agency, Bunzl Tours, where the couple worked together. Soon after selling the company, Walter Bunzl passed away. Frances daughter, Susan, motivated this 2005 video interview.

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  • Carson, Lucy

    Lucy shares her memories of her early childhood in Antwerp, Belgium. She describes fleeing Belgium with her extend family when the Germans invaded and being interred at a camp for foreign Jews in France. After their release, Lucy recounts the village and an abandoned train station where her family found refuge. Lucy details being separated from the family and spending the remainder of the war in hiding at two children's homes, a convent, and a private home. She describes being reunited with her sister and returning to Antwerp after the war. Lucy considers her own motivation to survive and her dependence on the generosity of others. She talks about coming to the United States and her adjustment to American culture. Lucy reflects on raising her children, what she shared with them about her experiences, and her return to France after four decades.

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  • Center, Bess

    Bess' father was from Moscow and moved to Savannah in 1905. He met Bess' mother and got married in 1911, In 1912, Bess was born in Savannah, GA. She moved to New York for a short time, but ultimately moved back to Savannah. Soon after she moved back, she married and had two children. Her husband was a doctor in the military. Originally he was stationed at Fort Screven on Tybee Island but transferred to New Orleans then Waco, Texas and then Tuscaloosa, Alabama. When the war was over, he left the military and went into private practice in Savannah. Bess lived in Savannah and raised her children. Later in her life, she moved into The Landings and continued to stay active, teaching exercise classes at the JEA and at The Landings. She also worked as a docent at the synagogue downtown, Mickve Israel.

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  • Clay, Charles

    Charles Clay reflects on his ironic connection to the community in Marietta, Georgia. He talks about returning to Marietta in 1978, where he learned by happenstance of his great uncle, Eugene Herbert Clay, and his involvement with the lynching of Leo Frank in 1915. Charles talks about his great uncle, Lucius Clay, who assisted Jewish displaced persons as Military Governor of Berlin after World War II. Charles reflects on his own career in law and his thoughts on the Leo Frank case.

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  • Cohen, Tilda

    Tilda discusses her family and life in Split, Yugoslavia. She talks about how life changed for her and her family after the Italians invaded Yugoslavia and the anti-Jewish laws were enforced in Split. She discusses her father and other family members who were involved in armed resistance with Tito's partisans. She recalls leaving Split after the Germans occupied northern Italy, fleeing across several islands in the Adriatic Sea, and eventually ending up in Bari in southern Italy, where she met Allied troops. She also remembers leaving Bari to escape the bombings being carried out there by the Germans. She discusses how, after the war, her family decided to immigrate to the United States, where she was married. She reflects on her impressions of the trial and execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, and how it impacted her family, and on the civil rights movement in Atlanta. She shares her feelings of isolation in the United States, and how she found fulfillment with friends who were not part of the mainstream of Jewish life in America.  Finally, she provides advice to future generations about the importance of having an open mind and broadening your horizons.

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  • Cohn, Aaron

    Judge Aaron Cohn was born in Columbus, Georgia, on March 3, 1916, to Sam and Etta Cohn. He was a first generation American. His mother was from Kiev, Ukraine. His father was in the livestock trade in Columbus. Judge Cohn grew up on a farm next to Fort Benning army base. He was educated in the local public school and graduated from Columbus High School in 1932. He graduated from the University of Georgia law school in 1938. In 1940, he volunteered for military service. He was a Combat Operations Officer of the U.S. Cavalry in General Patton's Army in four major campaigns in Europe, including the Battle of the Bulge, and helped liberate the Ebensee Concentration Camp in 1945. After the war, he returned to Georgia and became a lawyer and a well-respected judge. He was a member of Temple Israel. He married Janet Ann Lilienthal in 1941. They have three children.

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  • Cuba, Joseph

    Joseph Cuba was born in Atlanta. He married Ida Pearle Miller and had three children: Lana, Philip, and Lawrence. He was active in the Ahavath Achim Congregration and founded the Max M. Cuba & Company (an accounting firm) with his brother, Max. He discusses the history of the Atlanta Jewish community in general, including Jewish-Jewish relations. He knew and worked with the major leaders of the Atlanta Jewish secular community including Edward Kahn and Barney Medintz. His children contributed substantially to the museum archives in his name and helped to establish the Ida Pearle and Joseph Cuba Community Archives and Genealogy Center.

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  • Diamond, Gertrude Tontak

    Gertrude Tontak Diamond was born in Atlanta, Georgia to Isaac and and Mollie Meltzer Tontak. She went to public schools but received a religious education at Ahavath Achim. Her family was in the grocery business, and she would later follow in their footsteps. She went to work for the Jewish Educational Alliance after high school. She met her future husband, Alex Diamond, in the Arbeiter Ring to which her family belonged. She participated in the Yiddish activities, including a dramatic group, at the Arbeiter Ring and attended their school briefly. She and her husband ran a grocery store for many years but they sold out in 1972 after they had been robbed 5 times in one year. Gertrude was always very active in the Jewish community including the National Council of Jewish Women, Amat, Yiddish cultural and language activities, Hadassah, Jewish War Veterans of the United States (Women's Auxiliary), and Jewish Educational Alliance. She also volunteered at the William Breman Jewish Home where her husband Alex lived for five years until his death in 1990.

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  • Draker, Henry

    Henry Draker grew up in Flatow, Germany, where his family owned a grain business. He describes the hyperinflation of the 1920's and the increase in antisemitism his family encountered. Henry recounts what happened when the Nazi Party came to power and he and his father were arrested. He outlines his detainment in a prison, two concentration camps, and a forced labor camp. He describes his release and subsequent immigration to Belgium and then Palestine. Henry recalls finally coming to the United States, joining the army, meeting his wife, and encountering antisemitism. He relays how he found out about the deaths of his parents. Henry describes moving to Atlanta, Georgia and travelling throughout Europe in his retirement. The interview closes with his impressions of the French and German people before and after the war.

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  • Drum, Leo

    Leo J. Drum, Jr., was born in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1915. He went to Barnes School, a private elementary school. He attended Georgia Institute of Technology for engineering in Atlanta, Georgia, and graduated in 1935. After graduation, he worked for York Corporation in Atlanta and Tennessee Valley Authority. In 1941, he began military service and was stationed at Craig Air Force Base in Selma, Alabama. He went overseas during World War II and was stationed in England and in France. Leo was a staff officer working in the headquarters of the United States Army Corps of Engineers in Europe and became captain in 1943. Leo worked under the chief engineer of the entire Theater of Operations. By the end of the war, he had worked his way to lieutenant colonel. He returned home after the war and started his own air conditioning business in Montgomery. He is a member of Temple Beth Or since birth and had his confirmation class with Rabbi Benjamin Goldstein. Growing up, his family attended temple on Friday nights and on High Holy Days. He sat on the board of Temple Beth Or for 17 years and on the board of the Standard Club for 18 years.

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  • Dwoskin, Harry

    Harry recounts his father's immigration to Atlanta as well as his beginnings in the decorating business. He discusses his father's work on the design of Ahavath Achim Congregation and details the artistic processes involved in the creation of the building. Harry reflects on the pride he took in his father's work and the praise he received in the community.

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  • Edwards, Evelyn

    Evelyn Kruger Edwards was born in Fitzgerald, Georgia, in 1924. Her father, Abe Kruger, was from Lithuania. He met Lillian Kulbersh in Atlanta, Georgia. They moved to Fitzgerald, where he opened Kruger's Department Store. They had two children. Evelyn's mother died young, and her father remarried Helen Whitcover from South Carolina. Her father was a founding member of the Fitzgerald Hebrew Center in Fitzgerald. Evelyn attended high school in Fitzgerald. She attended college at the University of Alabama. During this time, she met her husband, Ralph Edwards. They married in 1954. She worked with her husband at his radio station in Tifton, Georgia, WCUP. She had a program of her own, called Women in the News. Evelyn was active in the Sisterhood and taught Sunday school at the Fitzgerald Hebrew Center. She and Ralph have two daughters.

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  • Ehrlich, Bertram Adolph

    Bertram Ehrlich was born in Bainbridge, Georgia in 1913.  This interview covers the Ehrlich and Kwilecki family histories in Bainbridge.  Bert discusses his youth, education, career as a pharmacist, marriage to Bernice Jacobs and his family.  He also details the history of the Jewish community in Bainbridge throughout the 20th century, his mother's role in starting Temple Beth-El and her later involvement in the community.   Bertram discusses Rabbi Edmund Landau and his friendship with Marvin Griffin, leter the Governor of Georgia.  This interview is a microcosm of life in a small Southern town.

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  • Eisenstein, Clara (Klara)

    Klara (Clara) briefly outlines her life prior to World War II. She recalls the immediate persecution inflicted on Jews by the Germans and the local Poles and Ukrainians. Clara details how she escaped with her baby from a roundup. She describes the horrible living conditions in the ghetto and the constant arrests and executions. She explains how she and the baby were found hiding with a Polish family, were arrested, and escaped again. She recalls the brutality she endured when she and the baby went into hiding with a Ukrainian farmer. Clara remembers how she and the baby then survived in the forest until her husband joined them and they hid in a hole dug underneath a Ukrainian woman's home. Clara recounts living in Russian-occupied Poland after liberation and being smuggled across the border to the American occupied zone of Germany. Clare shares the deep sadness she felt even after immigrating to the United States.

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  • Eizenstat, Stuart

    Stuart Eizenstat was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1943. He moved to Atlanta, Georgia, with his mother when he was eight months old after his father had returned from the Army. Stuart's father, Leo, was born and raised in Atlanta. Stuart's grandfather, Ezor, immigrated to Atlanta in 1904 from Belarus. Stuart's family belonged to Ahavath Achim and Shearith Israel in Atlanta. Stuart grew up in the Morningside area of Atlanta. He attended Morningside Grammar School and Grady High School. He played basketball at Grady and was honorable Mention All American. He attended Sunday school and was bar mitzvahed at Ahavath Achim. He attended University of North Carolina and Harvard Law School. Stuart has held several prominent positions in the Carter and Clinton administrations, as presidential advisor, Under Secretary of State, Under Secretary of Commerce, and Deputy of the Treasury Secretary. Stuart has been extraordinarily involved in Holocaust work. He worked extensively with restitutional recovery for victims of the Holocaust and helped create the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.

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  • Elkan, Mary

    Mary describes her childhood and shares her experience living in Czestochowa (Czȩstochowa), Poland during the Nazi occupation. She discusses working in the ghetto and the Hasag-Pelcery work camp. She recounts how she and her husband met and married in the ghetto and tried to go into hiding. Mary details the slave labor jobs she and Morris worked at. She recalls how she learned they were liberated. Mary talks about the antisemitism and fear they experienced after the war and why they left Poland for the American occupied zone of Germany. Mary recollects how it felt to arrive in the United States and Atlanta, Georgia on July 4, 1949. Mary speaks of her early years of living in Atlanta. She shares her connection to a synagogue in Atlanta and the importance of being Jewish. Mary tells of her grandchildren and the importance of the next generation. She explains who she named her children after and who her grandchildren were named after. The final part of the interview includes her two daughters.

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  • Ember, Connie

    Connie Nimrod Ember was born in Oklahoma in 1935. She moved to Selma, Alabama, where her parents and sister had been living. She and Ed Ember met in Selma and were married by Rabbi David Baylinson. She studied with Rabbi Baylinson at Temple Beth Or in Montgomery, Alabama, for her conversion to Judaism. She and Ed Ember belonged to Temple Mishkan Israel, a Reform congregation in Selma. She was president of the local Council of Jewish Women.

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  • Ember, Edwin

    Edwin (Ed) discusses his life in Selma, Alabama. He mentions that he was born in Brooklyn, New York. He talks about his training as a combat air crewman in the U.S. Navy and earning his education at the University of Georgia. Ed talks about living in Fitzgerald, Georgia, where he met his first wife. He recalls several families from there and the surrounding towns and Jewish businesses in the area. He remembers Rabbi Nathan Kohen. He discusses moving to Alabama and Georgia for business opportunities, before finally settling in Selma, Alabama in 1975, and meeting his second wife, Connie, who converted to Judaism.

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  • Entell, Hanna Kaunitz Weinstein

    Hannah Weinstein Entell was born in Vienna, Austria. She was the youngest of five children. She married a Czechoslovakian farmer 14 years her senior in order to get a passport and fled Austria in the 1930s via Shanghai, China and thence to the Philippines. There she divorced her first husband and married her second husband, Dr. Alfred A. Weinstein, a captain in the U.S. Army. During the war, Dr. Weinstein was taken captive by the Japanese and Hannah worked in the underground which provided food for prisoners of war. When Dr. Weinstein was released, he and Hannah married. They moved to Atlanta. Dr. Weinstein died in 1964, and Hannah married Max Entell.

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  • Epstein, Rabbi Harry H.

    Rabbi Harry Epstein was born in 1903 in Plunge, Lithuania, into a rabbinical family. In 1909, the Epstein family moved to Chicago, Illinois, where his father became the rabbi of the largest synagogue in Chicago. Rabbi Harry Epstein was educated in a yeshiva in Chicago and New York. He returned to Lithuania to study under his uncle at Slobodka Yeshiva and later in Palestine at the Hebron Yeshiva. He was ordained in 1926. In 1927, he returned to the United States and took his first rabbinate position at an Orthodox congregation in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In 1928, he took the rabbinate position at Ahavath Achim Congregation in Atlanta, Georgia, where he served for more than 50 years.

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  • Feldman, Clara Lazar

    Clara Lazar Feldman was born in Atlanta, Georgia. Her parents came from Poland and were married in New York City. When her father, Louis, came to Atlanta he owned a grocery store then a liquor store. After Louis died her mother, Anna, sold the liquor store and started an ice cream stand. Anna remarried a man named Charles Greenberg. Clara married Sidney Feldman after he returned from World War II (the Pacific theater) wounded and they had four children. Sidney was in the metal trade (London Iron and Metal Company) and then the real estate industry (London Feldman Company). Clara discusses her families, her childhood, social activities, her relationship with Black people, public school education, antisemitism, her volunteer activities in the Jewish community and Shearith Israel congregation.

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  • Feldman, Rabbi Emanuel

    Rabbi Feldman is descended from a family of generations of rabbis. His father is a Polish Jew and a rabbi, now (2000) living in Jerusalem. Rabbi Feldman came with his family to the United States in 1927. He met and married his wife, Estelle, in 1952 and they had five children. His sons all became rabbis and his daughters are all married to rabbis. Rabbi Feldman, recently retired, was rabbi of Congregation Beth Jacob since 1952, Atlanta's Orthodox community. He is the former vice-president of the Rabbinical Council of America and has served on the Bet-Din (Rabbinical Court). He received his rabbinical education from Ner Israel Rabbinical College in Baltimore, a masters from Johns Hopkins University and a Ph.D. from Emory University. He serves as a visiting lecturer at Bar Ilan University in Israel and has written three books and numerous articles. Rabbi Feldman recounts the growth of Orthodox Judaism in Atlanta from the 1960s on and recounts the issues surrounding the creation of the first Jewish day school in Atlanta. His son, Rabbi Ilan Feldman, is now the rabbi of Congregation Beth Jacob.

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  • Feldman, Sidney

    Sidney Feldman was born in Brest Litovsk, Poland (now Belarus) in 1921. He came with his family to Atlanta in 1929 as a child. He was one of four children. He was educated at Columbia University in New York and became a co-owner (with his uncle, Max London) of a scrap metal company. He was active in community service including the Atlanta Jewish Federation, Atlanta Jewish Community Center, Greenfield Hebrew Academy, and the William Breman Jewish Home. He also serves on the Board of Trustees for the Morehouse University School of Medicine. He recalls the early days of the Jewish Progressive Club and his service in World War II.

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  • Fishkin, Miriam Motyl

    Miriam Motyl was born on November 10, 1930 in Pruzhany, Poland (now Belarus). Miriam discusses her childhood in Pruzhany, Poland until the war started in 1939 and the Russians occupied her town. Miriam recalls how she, her mother and sisters returned to Poland, going to Lodz and how Esther married a young yeshiva student she had met in Siberia. She recounts their travels across Europe, her desire to go to Palestine, but how she and her mother and sisters instead joined Esther and her husband, who had come to New York in the United States. Miriam recalls her life in the New York: finding work, socializing, meeting and marrying her husband, raising a family, running a business and eventually re-settling in Atlanta nearer her children.

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  • Friedlander, Eva

    Eva introduces her family and describes her early years in Budapest. She describes the growing antisemitism in Hungary before World War II began. Eva shares what she knows about her father's and other family member's experiences in the Holocaust. She recalls how the situation for Jews worsened as the Arrow Cross Party came to power and deportations began. Eva details how she and her mother survived the rest of the war in hiding. She details the last days of the war and how she and her mother began to rebuild their lives. She talks about breaking off her engagement to her fiancée and meeting the man she later married. Eva recounts how Hungary changed after the war. She describes moving to Italy and then immigrating to the United States and settling in Atlanta, Georgia. Eva describes her mother's later years and the fates of other surviving family members. She reflects on her visits to Hungary and the role of Judaism in her family's lives. Eva shares her knowledge of her husband's wartime experiences. She discusses his final years and what her life is like. The interview closes with Eva's wishes for her grandchildren.

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  • Friedman, Karl Bernard (2009) ★

    Karl Friedman was an influential player in the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham, Alabama.  He discusses his family origins, childhood, military service, marriage and his own family in depth, including his mother, Sidney Stein's, influence on her children's lives and the Jewish and general community as well.  Karl relates in detail the Jewish community during the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham including his interactions with Martin Luther King, Jr. and other important civil rights leaders as well as his interactions with Bull Connor.  He recalls the episode of the 19 rabbis coming to Birmingham to "witness" and what that did to the Jewish community in particular and the general community as a while as well as the Children's March after which he helped to get the 450 black children released.  This interview is one of our finest and is unique.

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  • Friedman, Karl Bernard (2012) ★

    Karl Friedman was an influential player in the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham, Alabama.  He discusses his family origins, childhood, military service, marriage and his own family in depth, including his mother, Sidney Stein's, influence on her children's lives and the Jewish and general community as well.  Karl relates in detail the Jewish community during the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham including his interactions with Martin Luther King, Jr. and other important civil rights leaders as well as his interactions with Bull Connor.  He recalls the episode of the 19 rabbis coming to Birmingham to "witness" and what that did to the Jewish community in particular and the general community as a while as well as the Children's March after which he helped to get the 450 black children released.  This interview is slightly longer than the 2009 interview and goes into more depth on the Civil Rights Movement.  It is one of our finest interviews and is unique.

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  • Frostig, Haskell

    Haskell describes his early years in southeastern Poland and life under Soviet occupation after 1939. When the Germans invaded in 1941 and the family was forced into a ghetto, Haskell relates his experience being hidden for a brief period by a local farmer. Once he was in the ghetto, Haskell recalls witnessing a series of violent actions. He describes going out on work crews from the ghetto and his sisters being sent to another camp. When the rumor spread that the smaller camp where Haskell and his parent were was to be liquidated next, he recounts escaping into the nearby woods, hiding in the barns of friendly farmers, and enduring hunger and lice. Haskell describes the family's journey to Germany and then the United States after the war. Haskell recalls attending high school in Atlanta, marrying, joining an Orthodox congregation, and beginning his career. He describes the negative attitudes toward immigrants and minorities that he encountered. Haskell considers the tension between Israel and its Arab neighbors, Holocaust denial, and contemporary politics in America.

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  • Galambos, Jon

    Jon Galambos recounts his life in Hungary before the war and discusses his family's history in Hungary. He describes his time in labor camps scattered throughout Hungary. Jon details his transfer by train to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany and his life in the camp. He discusses his liberation from a train that had been evacuated from the camp by the Americans in 1945. Jon traces his return to Budapest and his decision to leave. He talks about his work in displaced persons camps for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in Salzburg, Austria. He recalls his decision to attend the university in Munich, Germany and later his decision to go to the United States. Jon describes his trip to America, arriving at Ellis Island, and his trip to Athens, Georgia to attend the University of Georgia. He recounts his life in Athens and later Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia where he received his medical degree. Jon shares a story about an interaction with Albert Einstein. He outlines his internship at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, his residency and fellowship at the University of Chicago, and his two-year service commitment with the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC). Jon discusses working for the Centers for Disease Control and at Grady Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. He explains his motivation and drive for a successful career in Gastroenterology and Hepatology. He describes his home life in Sandy Springs with his children and his wife.

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  • Gallant, Henry

    Henry describes a happy early childhood in Berlin, Germany as the only child of a perfume manufacturer. Henry recalls in detail the events of Kristallnacht, the destruction and its aftermath in Berlin and the impact it had on his family. After Kristallnacht, Henry recalls how the Goldsteins fled Germany on the St. Louis, and remembers the voyage itself. When the St. Louis was denied entry to its destination port in Cuba and later to the United States as well, Henry describes his family's return to France after the St. Louis was turned back. Henry remembers how his father was sent to the Gurs internment camp in France and later to Auschwitz-Birkenau on Convoy 17 which left France on August 10, 1942 and arrived in Auschwitz-Birkenau on August 12, 1942. He describes the strange predicament of waiting for his father to return and not knowing that he had died until after the war or of his ultimate fate until very recently.

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  • Garber, Alfred

    Alfred 'Al' Garber was the son of Elias 'Eli' Garber and Rosa Gershon Garber, Russian immigrants who arrived in the United States in the early 1900's. His father was an optician and a grocer. After his father died in 1922 and his mother contracted tuberculosis, he spent his remaining childhood years in the Hebrew Orphans' Home in Atlanta, along with his sisters Freda Garber Goldstein Karp and Janet Garber Nadel. He was a graduate of Boys' High School in Atlanta and the University of Georgia in Athens. He was a CPA who co-founded Young & Garber. He was a philanthropist who was a leader in the Atlanta Jewish Community Center, the Standard Club, Ahavath Achim Congregation and the Temple. He was president of the Jewish Children's Service which began as the Hebrew Orphans' Home, and president of the Mayfair Club. He founded the City of Hope Foundation in memory of his son Eliot to aid sick children. He and his wife Geraldine 'Gerry' Cohen Garber were the parents of Eliot J. Garber, Stephen William Garber and Richard Garber.

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  • Garey, William

    Garey discusses his childhood and upbringing in an interfaith household in Atlanta, Georgia, and the anti-Semitism his family experienced. He discusses his family genealogy and how they settled in Georgia. Garey talks about his primary education in Atlanta and the Pennington School in New Jersey, as well as his secondary education at Georgia Tech. Of special note is Garey's discussion of his experience in World War II and Israel's War of Independence. Garey served as a radio operator in both conflicts. He discusses his influences for participating in both wars.

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  • Garson, Dan

    Dan Garson was born in Atlanta on June 22, 1920, the middle of three children. His father contributed to many Jewish institutions in Atlanta, and his parents together founded and ran the Lovable company, a large lingerie producer. Dan attended Boys' High in Atlanta, and went to college at Duke University, Class of 1941. Dan was a scratch golfer, playing throughout his childhood and school career. He won the Bobby Jones Invitational in 1939 and six club championships at The Standard Club. He joined the Army Air Corps and served from 1942 until the end of World War II. Upon receiving an honorable discharge, he joined the family business, the Lovable Company, and eventually rose to become Chairman of the Board. He held this position until the company was dissolved in 1998. He was a pioneer in the integration of the workplace and attended the first Martin Luther King dinner. He was also involved in many community organizations and donated to many causes. This included serving two terms as President of The Standard Club, serving as a Board member of the Atlanta Jewish Federation, being a member of the American Jewish Committee. He was their past honoree on two occasions. He was also a member of The Temple, and a member of the Board of the Jewish Home, which his father founded. He continued in his father's footsteps as co-Chair of building the new facility on Howell Mill Road.

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  • Gibian, Betty Rose

    Betty Rose Gibian was born in Selma, Alabama, in 1922. Her father owned American Candy Manufacturing Company, a candy business in Selma, which started regionally and eventually expanded nationally and internationally. She married Richard Gibian in 1945. He worked in the family business. Betty and Richard have three daughters.

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  • Gibian, Richard

    Richard Gibian was born in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1919. His father, Julian Gibian, was born in Macon, Georgia. His mother, Lucile Newman, was from Snow Hill, Alabama. His family was Reform. Richard graduated from Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1941. In 1947, he moved to Selma, Alabama, with his wife, Betty Rose Gibian. He worked in his wife's family business, American Candy Company, until they sold the business in 1989. The company started as a local business and eventually expanded nationally and internationally. At the height of the business, the company had approximately 350 to 500 employees.

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  • Golcman, Josef

    Josef describes growing up in Ryki, Poland with his family and their religious life. He discusses how his family lived in the ghetto in Ryki and the use of the Judenrat by the Germans to send Jews to the various camps in Poland. He recounts the way the Poles treated the Jews in Poland and how this was not a positive experience for him. Josef outlines his time in Deblin and then Czestochowa as a slave laborer. He explains his life hiding in the forests at the end of the war. He reflects briefly on the loss of his parents and other family members during the Holocaust. Josef recounts how his family, friends, and future wife met in the town of Zelechow as agreed upon after liberation. He describes how the Poles were not happy to see him return and how they killed shot several Jewish women who had also returned. Josef details how he was able to dig up a box of religious items he had buried before the war. He recalls how he started a business in Lodz and became successful. He details how his brother joined the Soviet army and, while he was in Lodz on furlough, they escaped to Deggendorf, Germany by train with forged papers. Josef recounts how he and his family came to New Orleans, Louisiana and later to Savannah, Georgia, where he opened a kosher market and delicatessen. He describes his introduction to segregation in the South. Josef details his family's move to Atlanta, Georgia in 1973, where he began a hotel and real estate business. He details his daughters' lives and his grandchildren. Josef shares his viewpoints on Poles, Germans, and Israel. He reminisces about his family and the loss of loved ones during the Holocaust. Josef expresses his hope for Jewish people.

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  • Goldberg, Elliott

    Elliott's father, Joseph Goldberg, emigrated from Poland, Russia, to New York City where he worked as a tailor. Elliott's mother, Sarah Levitt Goldberg, was born in Covington, Kentucky. Joseph and Sarah met in New York City. Joseph moved to Atlanta to open a grocery business on Mangum Street. Sara's uncle Jacob Boss brought her to Atlanta where he operated a grocery store on Central Avenue. Joseph and Sarah reunited in Atlanta and married. The couple lived in an apartment behind their store on Mangum Street. Elliott was born in Atlanta on June 28, 1919. Elliott tells how his father Joseph earned a living in Atlanta. Joseph first opened a grocery store on Mangum Street, then a wholesale grain business on Decatur Street. Elliott remembers that when he was 5 years old, an Atlantic Ice and Coal Truck crashed into the Decatur Street store, the building caved in, and the store was closed. Joseph then worked in a fish business on Capitol Avenue until he had a heart attack. Elliott tells how his mother then operated the business.

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  • Goldberg, Joel

    Joel Goldberg was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1925 to Max and Rebecca Goldberg. His father, born in London, England, came to United States when he was 18 months old. His mother was from Lithuania. His mother and father owned a bakery in Massachusetts and lived upstairs of the business. Joel joined the U.S. Navy at the age of 17 and spent four years as a navy pilot during World War II. After returning home, he earned his degree from Dartmouth College before starting his retail career with Filene's in Massachusetts. He spent a year with a resident buying office in New York City, Associated Merchandising Corporation, before moving to Atlanta in 1954 to work in the women's Fashion Store at Rich's Department Store. He held various positions at Rich's as vice president and senior vice president, chairman of the board, and chief executive officer. He was appointed president in 1971. He was the sixth president of Rich's. He was the only non-Rich to hold that position. He was also president of the Rich Foundation. Joel's career at Rich's spanned 30 years.

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  • Goldgar, Vida Daab

    Vida Daab (Goldgar) was born in Columbia, Illinois in 1930. She came to Atlanta from New York in 1959. She worked for the Southern Israelite (later the Atlanta Jewish Times) on a part-time basis as she was raising four children. On January 1, 1979 she purchased the paper and became editor and publisher. She owned The Southern Israelite until August 1986, when she sold it to Stan and Shirley Rose of the Kansas City Jewish Chronicle and retired.

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  • Goldhammer, Ginger

    Ginger discusses meeting and marrying her husband, who was arrested and sent to the Buchenwald concentration camp when the Nazis annexed Austria in 1938. She describes the struggle to find out information and get him released. Ginger relays the frenzy and frustration of trying to emigrate from Austria in 1939. When the couple finally escaped Europe, Ginger describes being forced in a ghetto in Shanghai, China. For five years, they struggled to survive starvation and isolation. Ginger describes finally leaving Shanghai and arriving in San Francisco in 1947 in what seemed a dream. She describes learning English while her husband studied to become certified as a doctor in the US. Ginger describes the two years they lived in Texas. Ginger outlines a brief move to upstate New York, where her husband encountered a former Nazi. She describes the next 15 years spent in Rome, Georgia as very happy years. She briefly mentions witnessing segregation and antisemitism. Ginger describes becoming an American citizen and changing her name. Ginger reflects on the bonds that develop between refugees. She determines the most important thing in life is to make friends and love people, regardless of race or religion.

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  • Goldstein, Marvin

    Marvin begins by discussing the immigration of his paternal grandparents and his parents from Poland, Russia to Atlanta, Georgia, in reaction to the 1900 pogroms and to avoid army conscription. Marvin talks about his father's salvage business and how it was affected by the Great Depression. He tells about the black worker who drove their truck to pick up cotton sheet clippings from the Ku Klux Klan headquarters. He discusses the business relationship of whites, blacks, and Jews and the limits of their personal relationships. Marvin tells about his military service in World War II for the United States Army Air Forces from 1942 to 1946. He says he flew as a gunner in raids when he was stationed in England. He recalls attending the re-opening the Rothschild Great Synagogue of Paris for Rosh Ha-Shanah in 1944. Marvin discusses enrolling at Emory University at the age of 16 and obtaining his joint undergraduate and graduate degree in dentistry. He discusses attending the University of Michigan and Columbia University to specialize in orthodontics for adults. He tells about first working as a dentist in partnership with his brother Irving Goldstein and then opening his own practice as an orthodontist. He discusses buying and building hotels, including the first integrated hotel in Atlanta. He talks about the Ben Massell Dental Clinic, its history, and its treatment of blacks. Marvin discusses the anti-Semitism he and other students encountered at Emory University's Dental School that resulted in a 60 percent failure rate of Jewish students in the Dental School during the 1960s. He tells how he and Morris Abram collected and presented data evidencing discrimination toward Jewish students to the University's president that resulted in the dean's resignation. Marvin tells about the growth Atlanta and the Atlanta Jewish community since his childhood. He talks about the separation between the German-Jewish Reform community, the Orthodox community, and the Spanish [Sephardic] community, and how the separations diminished in time. He discusses the change in Ahavath Achim from an Orthodox to Conservative congregation.

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  • Goldstein, Maxine

    Maxine Goldstein was born and raised in Augusta Georgia by her parents, Sadie and Harry Shapiro. There she worked as a radio announcer and attended Augusta Junior College for two years before attending the University of Georgia. At UGA she met her husband, Jacob Goldstein. Maxine moved to Milledgeville with Jake upon their marriage, and the couple had two children together, Marcia and Harriet. In Milledgeville Maxine became very involved in the community, supporting a wide variety of organizations, often taking leadership roles or founding groups. She is also a strong supporter of the Democratic party, and is known as 'the hat lady' for attending national democratic conventions in outlandish headgear. Maxine is also very involved in the Jewish community, in part because she was raised by a devoutly Jewish father.

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  • Goodfriend, Betty Grossman

    Betty shares where she grew up and how she came to be in Kovno, Lithuania when the Germans invaded in June 1941. She describes being confined to the Kovno ghetto and the atrocities she witnessed. Betty explains how she was sent to work at a hospital outside the ghetto, where she managed to smuggle guns to the underground. She recalls being transferred by train to Stutthof when the ghetto was liquidated. In Stutthof, Betty recounts the living conditions and how she was put to work digging trenches. She remembers the death march she and her sister were sent on. She explains how they managed to escape from the death march. Betty describes how she spent the final weeks of the war travelling with Russian troops, working in a field hospital. She discusses why she decided to escape from the Russians and went to Berlin, where met husband. Betty closes by counseling future generations to be kind to one another and never forget.

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  • Goodfriend, Isaac

    Cantor Goodfriend introduces his family and describes his early years in Piotrkow and Lodz, Poland. He recounts the religious traditions and holidays his family observed. He outlines his education. Cantor Goodfriend recalls the anxiety and confusion in the community when Jewish refugees from Germany began to arrive and war seemed imminent. He describes how things began to rapidly change economically for the family after the Germans invaded Poland and occupied Lodz. Cantor Goodfriend recounts some of the destruction, abuse, and antisemitism his family observed and endured. He explains how his family fled Lodz for Piotrkow. He describes life in the ghetto and trying to survive by trading money and men's socks on the Black Market. Cantor Goodfriend discusses going to work at a glass factory in the ghetto. He shares how he lost his family when the ghetto was liquidated. He relays a story about narrowly escaping severe punishment thanks to his relationship with Polish workers at the factory. Finally, Cantor Goodfriend describes escaping from the factory and finding refuge with a Polish farmer until the war's end.

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  • Gottlieb, Alan

    Mr. Gottleib speaks of his life in Savannah, Georgia. He tells about his family, who they are and what brought them to Savannah. His family were pioneers in the kosher food business in Savannah. He tells of his place within the family business and how he came upon the profession he had for the majority of his life. Alan speaks about Jewish life in Savannah during his life.

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  • Gottlieb, Ilona

    Ilona Hercz Gottlieb was born in Budapest, Hungary in 1918. She was raised by her mother, since her father passed away when she was a young girl. Growing up they were very poor, not much to eat. During the war she was deported to Bergen-Belsen and Theresienstadt. She got married and had two children and eventually moved to the United States after a short stay in Paris, France and Budapest, Hungary. Her son is a medical doctor and her daughter is an attorney. She was willing to share her life story, so her grandchildren and great-grandchildren will always remember what happened in Europe during the war.

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  • Gottlieb, Isser

    Isser gottleib was born in Savannah, Georgia. His father was also born in Savannah and his mother was from Birmingham, Alabama. His family owned and worked in the bakery, Gottleibs. The family always lived above the bakery. The bakery soon became a Savannah tradition with early recipes from family. They also created recipes for items such as the chocolate chewy and Ava's chocolate suicide cake. Isser has three sons. They are all in the food business - 2 chefs and the third with a business degree. Isser and his wife Ava, recalled his life growing up in Savannah with his family in the bakery business. He shares how practices changed over the years and how they adapted. Isser reminisced about different and favorite items and individuals that he encountered along the way.

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  • Greenblat, Hershel

    Hershel Greenblat was born in the Ukraine in 1941. The first year of his life was spent hiding in a cave with his parents. When the German invasion of the Soviet Union began, Hershel's family moved frequently to avoid capture. Eventually, they settled in a city in eastern Ukraine under false identities and a younger sister was born. Herschel's father was arrested by the Soviets around 1944 and spent the remainder of the war in prison. At the end of World War II, Hershel's father was released from prison and the family decided to flee Communist controlled Ukraine. Life for Hershel and his family changed dramatically when they arrived in the American controlled zone of Austria. For five years, they lived in displaced persons camps, where they began to resume a normal life and another sister was born. In 1950, they received permission to immigrate to the United States and settled in Atlanta, Georgia. Herschel attended school and helped his father operate a small grocery store. After high school, Hershel began a career in retail management and sales. He married and had two sons. Today, Herschel devotes much of his time speaking to school children about his family's experiences and teaching the lessons of tolerance he took from the Holocaust.

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  • Greenblatt, Harriet Wiseberg

    Harriet Wiseberg (Greenblatt) was born in 1916 in Atlanta, Georgia. Her parents were Arthur Wiseberg and Helen Silverman Wiseberg. She grew up in Druid Hills, an area of Atlanta that was not typically Jewish. Harriett participated in Ballyhoo, Jubilee and Falcon social events and often went to Jester Lake She attended the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia. She married Sidney Greenblatt. They belonged to the Temple and Sidney worked for Montag Brothers. Harriet participated in the civil rights movement through the National Council of Jewish Women. She also participated in the League of Women Voters.

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  • Grinzaid, Anna

    The interview covers the time between 1928 (the year of her birth) and 1979 (the year of her official emigration to the United States). She recounts many challenges which she and her family had endured during World war II including being evacuated out of the war zone twice (once away from Odessa inland to the city of Kharkov and the second time out of the Ukraine entirely to the coast of the Caspian Sea in the Republic of Uzbekistan). She had first Job at a garment factory in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. at the age of fifteen. She later returned to Odessa at the age of sixteen and learned that her extended family (two aunts and a grandmother) had been murdered during the war. She married for the first time At the age of seventeen and that marriage resulted in the birth of her oldest son. She met and married her current husband Samuel Grinzaid (a Nuclear Machine design engineer) at the age of twenty-two. Together thy have a son named Jimmy. She further describes how she, Samuel and Jimmy had emigrated to the United States in 1979 with the help of HIAS (the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society). She also describes the feeling of celebrating the Jewish High Holidays such as Purim, Passover and Hanukkah in the US for the first time ever.

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  • Grollman, Jody

    Jody Grollman was born in Bainbridge, Georgia, on January 11, 1947, to Rosalie Gold and Joseph Milton Grollman. His father was born in Bainbridge in 1908. His family came to the United States from Lithuania. Jody's grandmother was from the Kline family. They came to Bainbridge in 1907. Six or seven siblings in that family were merchants in Bainbridge. Jody's grandfather peddled his wares and eventually opened his own retail and shoe business in 1912, known as Grollman's Department Store. The shop remained in business for 79 years. Jody has many family members buried in the Jewish cemetery in Bainbridge, Oak City Cemetery. Jody has one sister and one brother, who live in Atlanta.

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  • Haas, Jacob

    Jacob discusses his family and their roots in the South and their immigration from Germany, settlement in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and then Atlanta, Georgia where his great-grandfather (also Jacob) opened a general store with Herman Levi. Jacob recollects growing up in Atlanta and going to public school. Jacob recounts one of his earliest memories: living so close to the Fulton County courthouse, he could hear and see all that was going on during the Leo Frank trial. His uncle, Herbert Haas, was one of Mr. Frank's attorneys. His family was under heavy police security at their home.

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  • Haber, Rosalyn Gross

    Rosalyn introduces her family and how their lives began to change when World War II began. She recalls three of her six brothers being sent to a labor camp while the rest of the family was sent to the Munkacs ghetto. Rosalyn describes their deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau, their separation, and losing her mother. She recounts being sent to Germany, first as a slave laborer at a munitions factory in Unterluss and then to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Rosalyn remembers her liberation by the British Army and how she reunited with her brothers. She shares her experiences escaping Soviet-controlled Czechoslovakia for Scotland and England. Finally, she recounts immigrating to America.

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  • Hart, Carol

    Carol's family has been in Alabama for several generations, going as far back as her great grandfather. Carol talks about her family tree, including her great grandparents, grandparents, parents, and other relatives. She does not have a lot of details about how or why her family members came to Alabama, but she talks about the dry goods store started in Montgomery by her paternal grandfather and one of his cousins, called Lobman-Steiner Dry Goods. She gives some information about the progression of the business, which grew to include a manufacturing plant that made overalls and work clothes. She reflects on the period of the Civil Rights Movement and subsequent integration.

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  • Hecht, Joel

    Joel introduces his family. He explains how his family enjoyed an upper class life-style and considered themselves more German than Jewish. Joel recalls the impact of anti-Jewish laws on his education and family's business. He outlines how the Nazi party's antisemitism gradually permeated the entire German culture. Joel shares how his family was able to immigrate to Holland after Kristallnacht in 1938. He recounts how, after four years, he and his sister got visas for the United States and immigrated in 1939 but his parents were not allowed to immigrate. Joel shares the fates of his family the majority of whom died although a few were also able to leave Europe in time. He recounts how his parents died in Bergen-Belsen. Joel closes with the reflection of how mistaken his family and so many others were in thinking they were safe and the Nazi party's power would not last.

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  • Hedges, Renate Bial

    Renate discusses her childhood in Gleiwitz (then in Germany, now Poland), but eventually left Germany on one of the last Kindertransports to England. She recounts her experiences of anti-Semitism and the rise of Nazism in Germany. She eventually immigrated to Canada, where she met and married Robert Hedges and lived until his death, when she moved to Atlanta to be with her children.

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  • Held, Kalman

    Kalman describes his family and early life in Czernovitz, Romania. He talks about how life changed for his family after the Soviets occupied Czernovitz. Kalman recounts his father's arrest and deportation to the Siberia, where he eventually died. After Romania reoccupied the border areas and allied with the Germans, Kalman recalls moving from Czernovitz to Braila and then Bucharest. Kalman describes leaving Bucharest for Palestine in 1944 with his mother, uncle, and a cousin. He discusses life in the detention camp at Atlit, his life in Tel Aviv with his mother and stepfather, and his life on three kibbutzim. Kalman recalls traveling to Austria as a teenager, where he studied hotel administration. He describes immigrating to Canada at 18, beginning his career, meeting his wife, the birth of his children, and moving to America. Kalman reflects on his time in Israel and a longing to return. Kalman discusses his faith and his strong attachment to his family. He recalls some of the events in his childhood when the Russians occupied Romania and then when Romania was allied with the Germans. Finally, Kalman discusses his plans for retirement.

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  • Heyman, Joseph

    Joseph Kohn Heyman was born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1908, the son of Minna Simon Heyman and Arthur Heyman. He attended R. L. Hope Elementary School and Fulton High School. He graduated from University of Georgia and received his Masters of Business Administration from Harvard Business School. He was an economist for Tri-Continental Corporation, a New York investment company, and served with the War Production Board in Atlanta during World War II. He operated his own investment firm before joining the Trust Company of Georgia. Notwithstanding two years during which he served as financial vice president of Rich's Inc., he remained at the Trust Company of Georgia until his retirement in 1973. He was on the Board of Directors of Rich's Inc. and a life trustee of the Rich Foundation. He volunteered primarily with civic organizations, including the Atlanta Parking Commission, Community Chest, Family Service Society, Atlanta Chamber of Commerce, Atlanta-Fulton County Joint City-County Advisory Commission, Atlanta Arts Alliance, Inc., and the Atlanta Economics Club. He was also a member of The Temple and the Standard Club. He and his wife Bertha Bert Schwabacher Heyman were the parents of three daughters.

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  • Heyman, Josephine Joel

    Josephine Joel Heyman was born on October 15, 1901 in Atlanta, Georgia. She was the daughter of Ella Menko Joel and Benjamin Franklin Joel, both born in Georgia. Her maternal grandparents, Martin Menko and Caroline Oberdorf Menko, and her paternal grandparents, Sophie Lederer Barnett Joel and Lyons Barnett, immigrated to Georgia in the mid-1800's. Her grandfather Martin Menko was a charter member of The Temple. Her father and uncle Lyons Barnett Joel were the owners of Bass Dry Goods Company, a dry-goods and furniture store. She was a graduate of Tenth Street School and Girls' High in Atlanta, and Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. She was a civic and political leader in Atlanta. She was active with the National Council of Jewish Women and the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching, founded the DeKalb County League of Women Voters with Eleonore Raoul Greene, and was one of five women who founded the United Nations Association of the City of Atlanta. Her husband, Herman Heyman, was a partner in the law firm Heyman and Sizemore. She and her husband were the parents of Eleanor Heyman Wittenstein and Arthur Heyman.

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  • Heyman, Martha Strassburger Ringel

    Martha Strassburger Ringel (Heyman) was born and raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania although her parents' families emigrated from Germany. She married her first husband, Robert L. Spear, and who was in the furniture business in Pittsburgh, in 1937. She married Herbert A. Ringel, a lawyer from Atlanta in 1961. Martha was very active in the general Atlanta community including working with the unemployed and day care and in the Jewish community as a leader in the National Council of Jewish Women.

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  • Hirsch, Benjamin

    Benjamin Hirsch was born in 1932 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was the fifth of seven children born to a dentist, Hermann Hirsch, and his wife, Mathilde Auerbach Hirsch. In 1938, as the Nazi regime terrorized German Jews, Ben's father was arrested and sent to Buchenwald. Their mother sent Ben and his four older siblings to France on a Kindertransport. In 1941, after the Germans grip on France grew tighter, Ben and his two older sisters were smuggled out of France to Lisbon, Portugal on transports organized by the Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (OSE). From Lisbon, the children sailed for the United States. The three siblings met up with their brothers in Atlanta, Georgia. The children were all separately placed in local Jewish foster homes. Ben lived with several Jewish families until he graduated from high school. Ben’s parents and younger brother and sister perished in the Holocaust. Hermann died in Sachsenhausen concentration camp in November 1942. His mother and two siblings were murdered in the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau sometime in the fall of 1943. Ben served in the United States armed forces during the Korean War and then studied architecture at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Ben became an architect in Atlanta, designing several award-winning structures. For a short time he was in practice with Warren Epstein in the firm of Epstein and Hirsch. In 1978, Hirsch founded Benjamin Hirsch and Associates, Inc. Ben is the designer of the Holocaust Gallery at the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum as well as the Memorial to the Six Million in Atlanta's Greenwood Cemetery.

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  • Ichay, Robert

    Rabbi S. Robert Ichay, Rabbi Emeritus of Congregation Or VeShalom, was born in Sousse, Tunisia in 1929. He is the son of Simon Ichay and Louise Bessis Ichay. Rabbi Ichay is the oldest of his three siblings. He has a brother and two sisters, Yvonne, Albert, and Colette. Rabbi Ichay was bar mitzvahed. In 1943, the year the Germans had occupied Tunisia during World War II. He studied at the Talmud Torah and Yeshiva in Tunisia and received a college degree at Montefiore College in England. He married Blanchette Lieberman in 1957 in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1959, he moved to Salisbury, Rhodesia, to serve as associate rabbi at the Sephardic Hebrew Congregation of Rhodesia. In 1963, he graduated from the University of Rhodesia. In 1969, he moved to Atlanta, Georgia, to serve as rabbi to Congregation Or VeShalom. He became Rabbi Emeritus in 2002 after serving as chief rabbi for 33 years. Rabbi Ichay and his wife have one son, David.

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  • Jacobson, Al

    Al Jacobson talks about growing up in Waycross, Georgia, and how his father settled there. He talks about his father starting the family department store. He remembers that his father was well respected in the Jewish and non-Jewish community. He mentions that the Morris Jacobson Brotherhood Award is still given annually to a member of the community in memory of his father. He describes Waycross as a liberal town for South Georgia. He talks about the town as always being accepting of the Jewish community.

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  • Jacobson, Betty Ann

    Betty Ann Jacobson was born in 1926 in Atlanta, Georgia, to Rosalee and Sol Romm. Her parents were both raised in Atlanta. Betty is the youngest of two siblings. Betty graduated from Girls High in Atlanta in 1944. She attended the University of Illinois, earning a degree in journalism in 1948. She grew up in both the Temple and Ahavath Achim. Betty's mother and grandparents were Orthodox. Betty was confirmed at The Temple. Betty has a long history of volunteer work and held numerous leadership positions. She was the first woman president of the Atlanta Jewish Federation as well as its first woman Endowment Chair. She was President of the Atlanta Chapter of the Brandeis University National Women's Committee. She held leadership positions with the American Jewish Committee, The Temple, the United Way of Atlanta, and Oakland Cemetery Historical Foundation. She was honored with countless awards, among them the Atlanta Jewish Federation Lifetime Achievement Award, YWCA Greater Atlanta Salute to Women, and B'nai B'rith Gate City Lodge. She was devoted to her family and was a member of the PTA and a Girl Scouts leader. She and Harvey Jacobson married in 1951. They have three children, Susan, Nancy, and Joe. She and Harvey have many grandchildren

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  • Jones, Bessie Zaban

    Bessie Zaban Jones was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1898. Her parents immigrated to the United States in 1895 from Drohobycz, a small village in what was then Austria. Her mother's name was Ann Springer. Her father was David Zaban. They had eight children. They belonged to Ahavath Achim, an Orthodox congregation, when it was located on Gilmer Street. Bessie's father was president of the synagogue. Bessie later began attending The Temple, a Reform synagogue. Bessie attended Ivy Street School and Crew Street School when they moved to Capitol Avenue. She attended Girls High School. She left Atlanta in 1920 to attend the University of Chicago, where she studied English and Sociology. While at university, she met her husband, Howard Mumford Jones, a distinguished professor in English and American Literature at Harvard University. They married in 1927.

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  • Kahan, Jacob

    Jacob Kahan was born in Lodz, Poland on September 13, 1927 to Moses and Malka Kachan, who were manufacturers and owned shoe stores. He had one older sister and one younger sister. When World War II broke out, his father was drafted into the Polish army and never returned. Jacob, his sisters, and mother were sent from Lodz to a ghetto in Krosno. Jacob was soon sent to work at a series of labor and concentration camps in Poland and Germany, including Plaszow, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Czestochowa, and Nordhausen, where he worked as a slave laborer on the construction of V-1 and V-2 rockets. Towards the end of the war, he was sent to Bergen-Belsen. Jacob escaped with some friends and survived in the countryside until the British liberated the area. After the war, Jacob stayed in Germany and searched for his family. His mother and sisters had been murdered in Krosno in 1942. He met and married another survivor in 1948. In 1949, Jacob and his wife immigrated to the United States and settled in Atlanta, Georgia, where Jacob began a painting business. After his first wife’s death in 1958, Jacob remarried. He adopted his wife's son from her first marriage and the couple had two more sons. Jacob began talking about his experiences in his later years, visited Israel multiple times, and returned once to Poland. He died in 2005.

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  • Kean, Mary Phagan

    Mary Phagan Kean is the great niece and namesake of Mary Phagan. She discusses the Phagan family history and what she knows about the murder of Mary Phagan and how she learned about that episode in her family's history.

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  • Kemp, Don

    Don explains why and how his parents came to the United States and settled in Anniston, Alabama.& They had been living in Emmerich, Germany, and left in 1937. Don's mother's uncle had come to Anniston and, over time, other family members joined him there. Don discusses the livelihoods of his family members in Anniston and describes his experiences growing up in a small Southern community, both as a Jew and during segregation. The interview includes descriptions of the temple and the Jewish community, the economy of Anniston and the family businesses, segregation and desegregation, and personal stories from his childhood and of his family. Don describes how the Jewish community and the broader community have changed over time. Many white families began sending their children to private schools or moving to surrounding communities. Many young people have moved away, in favor of larger cities, and many of the factories that supported the community are now gone.

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  • Kempler, Bernhard

    Bernhard Kempler was born in Krakow, Poland on May 2, 1936. He was three years old when the war began, so his pre-war childhood memories are scant, however he does recall his middle-class life, their apartment, his father (Yehuda), mother (Zofia) and sister (Aneta), and remembers visiting the park and attending the synagogue with his father. He talks about how life changed for him and his family after the Germans invaded Poland, at which time before the Germans arrived in Krakow, Yehuda left the family and fled to Russia. Bernhard discusses their life in the Krakow ghetto and how they escaped and hid at various other sites. Bernhard recalls an emotional visit when he returned to Poland 40 years later where he visited the sites of his childhood,

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  • Kimerling, Sol

    Sol Kimerling was born in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1930. His grandfather immigrated to New York from Romania in 1912 and began working as a scrap metal peddler in the south. The family eventually settled in Birmingham and started a scrap metal business, M. Kimerling and Sons. Sol's father later expanded the business into other areas. Sol's family were members of Knesseth Israel and Temple Beth-El in Birmingham. Sol attended Hebrew school and was bar mitzvahed at Temple Beth-El.  He attended Ramsay High School.  He graduated from the University of Alabama and served in the U.S. Air Force during the Korean War. He was stationed in Wyoming and France. After the war ended, he returned to Birmingham and began working for the family business. Sol was involved in various Jewish and non-Jewish organizations. He was President of Birmingham Jewish Federation and a board member of YMCA. He married Rita Capouya of Montgomery, Alabama. They have four children. He began writing a book on the role of the Jewish community in Birmingham in the 1960s.

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  • King, Eddie

    Eddie describes his early life and family in Wolomin, Poland, and how it was disrupted by the German invasion of 1939. His father and uncles fled to escape transportation to a labor camp, the village synagogue was burned, and his grandmother was killed by German soldiers. Eddie recalls the horrors of his life in the Warsaw Ghetto, his escape to Russia, and his subsequent transportation to a Siberian labor camp. He was separated from his mother twice over the course of these events and was forced to care for his four-year old brother, despite being only nine years old himself. He and his brother were eventually taken to Japan, from whence they went America to live with an aunt in New York. Eddie remembers the eventual reunion with both of his parents and the devastation wreaked on their lives by their experiences in Europe. He describes working from the age of ten onwards to support the family, getting married at eighteen and starting a family, and eventually moving to Atlanta for business. He reflects on his Jewish identity, fighting against prejudice, and the importance of remembering the Holocaust and its lesson for humanity.

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  • Klein, Rose Libowsky

    Rose Libowsky Klein was born in Atlanta to Sarah, nee Rosen, and Joseph Libowsky.  Her family moved to New York City shortly after her birth for 15 years before returning to Atlanta in 1936. She was the third of four children and only daughter. She graduated from Girls High. Her family was highly active in the Arbeiters Ring. She went to their schools and learned Yiddish fluently. Her family was also involved with Congregation Shearith Israel. She and her husband Eugene Klein were the parents of five children: Rochelle [Rothenberg] Herrick, Maxine Jacobs, Hershene Borrin, Harley Klein, and Jody Klein. She was also deeply involved with the community, volunteering for the Red Cross, Young Judea, and working at the Jewish Federation for more than 30 years.

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  • Koch, Alan

    Alan grew up in Demopolis, Alabama. His father was an automobile dealer and farm implement dealer, and his mother worked during the Great Depression to keep the family alive. Alan went to Auburn University on a baseball scholarship. He went on to play baseball professionally, with the Detroit Tigers and the Washington Senators. After he left the sport, he earned a master's degree in history and a law degree at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. After a short stint as a lawyer, he had a career in the health care field until his retirement in 1999.  Alan discusses growing up Jewish in a small town in Alabama, his career in professional baseball and later as a lawyer.

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  • Komisarow, Erika

    Erika Helfgott Komisarow discusses her life as her family was forced to move from Berlin, Germany to Paris, France in 1933 after her father was arrested and sent to Oranienburg Camp. She recalls her life and her parents' occupations and their life as Jews while living in France before the war began. She recalls the events surrounding the beginning of the war and the fact that she was in Switzerland when the war began. She recounts the fact that her father was interned at the Velodrome d' Hiver (Vel d’ Hiv) and then sent to Pithiviers. He later joined the French Auxiliary Army and was sent to the South of France. She recounts how when the Germans invaded France they were forced to leave their home and hide in another apartment. She recalls how neighbors around them were arrested and taken away. Erika describes how she was sent to cross the border into Vichy, France with her false papers she made herself. Erika talks about the events of her capture by the French and German soldiers and how they released her because they did not believe she was Jewish. She describes her eventual reunion with her father, her sister and mother, but she details how this did not last as her father was arrested and sent to Drancy and later Auschwitz-Birkenau. Erika provides details of how her mother, sister and herself avoided capture and were in hiding for the rest of the war. Erika describes the efforts of the Archbishop of Montauban, Pierre Marie Théas, the French Jewish Scouts the Sixième—The Sixth Column to hide them in convents and homes doing work and other jobs until the end of the war. Erika recalls returning to Paris after the war and the need to work. She details the various jobs that she held in France after war working for the American Signal Corps, the Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants,[OSE] and American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, The Joint. She describes witnessing the Jews that returned from the concentration camps and the physical state that they were in and was thankful that she did not have that experience. She recalls her sister and mother's decision to move to America and her eventual joining them in New York City. She describes her life in America living in New York City, Ft. Wayne, Indiana, Jacksonville, Florida and Atlanta, Georgia. She reminisces on her life with her family, her job, her synagogue and her life as a survivor here in Atlanta.

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  • Kozma, Janina Prinz

    Janina Prinz was born in Delatyn, Poland in 1920. When the Germans attacked Poland on September 1, 1939, Janina and her mother fled Gdynia towards Krakow, settling in Wieliczka. When Wieliczka was liquidated in 1942, Janina and her mother obtained forged identification papers and returned to Krakow, where they stayed temporarily with the family's former maid and then moved to a convent. In December 1944, a Polish maid betrayed the Jews hiding at the convent to the Gestapo. Janina escaped arrest and fled to another Krakow convent, where she stayed until the Russians liberated Krakow on January 18, 1945. Janina's mother died in Gestapo custody. Her father, whom she had not seen since before the war, settled in a town near Krakow and survived the war.

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  • Krick, Edward

    Edward Krick was born in Atlanta, Georgia. His parents were Isaac Krick and Etta Levin Krick. His wife was Gertrude Fierman Krick. Ed was in the grocery business and, later, the real estate business. As a young man he was active in the Shearith Israel Juniors, a chapter of Young Judaea. He was a president of Congregation Shearith Israel. He served on the Boards of Trustees of the Atlanta Jewish Federation, the Atlanta Jewish Community Center, the Zionist Organization of America, and the Hebrew Academy of Atlanta. He had two children: Elliott Krick and Rosalyn Krick Kram.

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  • Krick, Gertrude

    Gertrude Fierman Krick was born in New York City in 1916 and relocated to Atlanta, Georgia in 1938. Her parents, Abraham Fierman and Frances Chigorsky Fierman, were immigrants from Russia. She had six siblings: Rose Kess, Jenny Fierman, Sam Fierman, Harry Fierman, and Morris Fierman. She received a bachelor's degree from Hunter College, a master's degree in education from Teachers College of Columbia University, and a master's degree in reading from Emory University. She was the first director of the Jewish Educational Alliance preschool in Atlanta and was a teacher and assistant principal of the Atlanta Hebrew Academy for 28 years. Her volunteer activities included leadership roles in Pioneer Women, Jewish Family Services, and Congregation Shearith Israel, and volunteering at the Shearith Israel women's shelter. Gertude and her husband Edward Krick were the parents of Elliott Krick and Rosalyn Krick Kram, and the grandparents of Joel Morris and Rachel Morris.

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  • Kuniansky, Max

    Max Lewis Kuniansky was born in 1917 in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the son of Louis "Louie" Kuniansky and Annie Fitterman Kuniansky. He was a graduate of Boy's High and Georgia Institute of Technology. He was a World War II veteran who served in the United States Army Air Forces and was a B-24 bomber navigator. He was the founder of MK Construction Co., a developer in the industrial market in metropolitan Atlanta. He was president of the Atlanta Jewish Community Center. He was married to Helen Silver Kuniansky. Max and Helen were the parents of Robert Kuniansky, David Kuniansky, Douglas Silver Kuniansky, and Amy Clark.

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  • Lanksy, Rubin

    Rubin recounts how he began working for the Germans as a forced laborer soon after Poland was occupied. He recalls working on the Autobahn and staying in Organization Todt labor camps in the Baltic States. Rubin explains how he was sent by boat from Riga-Kaiswerwald to Germany near the end of the war. He recalls his time in Buchenwald and working at the Bochumer Verein steel plant/labor camp. He describes the destruction of Allied bombing campaigns and his decision to volunteer for clearing bombs. Rubin traces his journey from Buchenwald to Czechoslovakia, where he passed as a non-Jewish Czech and was taken to a Red Cross hospital. Rubin shares how he traveled back to Poland after the war, where he learned his family had not survived, and participated in retaliation against Germans that had been captured by the Soviets. Rubin describes returning to Germany first in Bamberg and later in Munich, where he made a living on the Black Market. He shares how he met his wife. He outlines his immigration to the United States, working at a factory in New York, and finally moving to Atlanta, Georgia. He discusses his early ventures as a grocery store owner before moving into real estate. Rubin reflects on adjusting to life in America, raising his children, and he and his wife's involvement in the Atlanta survivor community, which became their extended family. He discusses his involvement with the construction of the Memorial to Six Million in Atlanta's Greenwood Cemetery and how he helped bring a surviving Torah from his hometown to Atlanta. Rubin offers his perspective of the Holocaust and the decision by the Allies not to bomb concentration camps. Rubin compares Jewish life in Europe and America and offers his perspective of religion and life in America.

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  • Lansky, Lola Borkowska

    Lola Borkowska Lansky was born in Lodz, Poland on November 19, 1926. Lola discusses her happy memories of visiting her grandparents in the small towns of Ozorkow and Parzeczew before World War II broke out in 1939.She discusses how relations were good between Jews and gentiles and Lola had non-Jewish friends. Lola recalls their transfer to Auschwitz-Birkenau when the Lodz ghetto was liquidated in 1944, and their further transfer to the Ravensbruck and then Muhlhausen camps in Germany. Lola describes her feelings when she was reunited with her father, brother, and several aunts and uncles at Feldafing Displaced Person camp. Lola describes being active in the Zionist movement at the camp and wanting to immigrate to Palestine but, following her father's wishes, the family moved to the United States, settling in New York in 1946. Lola recalls her marriage to Rubin Lansky in the United States, although they had met in Germany after the war, and their subsequent move to Atlanta, Georgia in 1953.

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  • Lavisky, Ira

    Ira Lavinsky was born in Brooklyn, New York, on April 22, 1944. Ira's grandfather immigrated to the United States from Russia. The entire family eventually came to the United States. His grandmother's family name is Tucker. Ira attended public elementary and high school in Brooklyn. He attended Hebrew school and was bar mitzvah'd in a rabbi's home that was converted into a little synagogue in the Crown Heights area of Brooklyn. Ira studied music as a child and professionally, which led to his career as cantor. In 1963, Ira left New York to attend University of South Florida and University of Tampa, where he earned a teaching degree. He became involved with Beth Israel Congregation in Tampa, where he sang in the choir. He was elected vice president of the Jewish student union at university and started the first religious service on campus, leading the service as cantor. After graduation, he taught in Tampa for two years and continued to be active in the choir. Ira later took a teaching job at a high school in Statenville, a rural town in South Georgia, where he met his wife. In 1970, they were married in Fitzgerald Hebrew Congregation in Fitzgerald, Georgia, where he has remained very active in Jewish life. He has served the community by leading services as cantor and performing other duties in absence of a rabbi. Ira is recognized for his years of service as educator and cantor in the Jewish community in Fitzgerald and neighboring towns.

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  • Leet, Ronnie

    Ronnie discusses his grandparents and parents immigration from Eastern Europe to the United States before World War II and eventual settlement in Selma, Alabama. He recalls his maternal grandparents' shoe and clothing store and his paternal grandparent's auto parts and scrap metal business, which he eventually joined and assumed leadership of after college. He remembers Temple Mishkan Israel and growing up in the Reform movement, the celebration of both Hannukah and Christmas as well as the Jewish holidays of Passover and the High Holy Days. He recalls fondly his religious education by Rabbi Lothair Lubasch and becoming bar mitzvah. He also discusses segregation, the cultural acceptance of Jim Crow.

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  • Levitas, Elliott

    Levitas shares background on his parents and grandparents, and describes his family's involvement in Atlanta's Jewish community. He reflects on his experiences in law school, studying abroad, serving in the military, and practicing law with Arnall, Golden, Gregory. He describes the impact of growing up during the civil rights movement, and reflects on attitudes towards Jews throughout his life in Atlanta and in Washington DC. He also shares stories about his campaigns for, and experiences as, a member of the Georgia General Assembly and of the United States House of Representatives.

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  • Lewin, Nora

    Nora Lewin was born in East Prussia but she was raised in Shavl, Lithuania. Her father, Michel, was an accountant and her mother, Masha, ran a clothing store. She had a younger sister, Mira, and a brother, Yitzhak. Nora went to business school and before the war started got a job as a secretary in the Jewish Central Bank. In 1940, she met and married her husband, Joel Lewin. When the war started Shavl fell under Russian occupation and she lost her job when the bank was nationalized. In June 1941 the Germans returned and the Jews of Shavl were pushed into a ghetto and put to forced labor. Nora was pregnant and she had a son, Gideon, in the ghetto. Nora and her family were deported from the ghetto in October 1943. During the roundup, Nora gave her baby to her mother. Her father had long since been taken away and executed. She was put on a transport to a labor camp in Estonia and her mother and child disappeared - probably taken to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Nora was sent to the Ereda labor camp and Joel was sent to another labor camp called Kivioli nearby. Ereda wasn't ready to receive the prisoners and the women had to build their own barracks. They were marched for miles to their work sites on the road system every day in the snow. Nora was sent to another nearby camp Goldfield, where she got typhus and was put on a selection list back to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where the sick and dying were murdered. Joel, however, managed to secure her release form the hospital and got permission for her to come to Kivioli. Nora recovered. As the Russians neared Kivioli the prisoners were put on a train and shipped to Stutthof concentration camp in Germany. She was marched out of Stutthof in January 1945 again ahead of the Russians. Nora and some of her friends escaped from the death march and a few days later were liberated by the Russians. She went to Lodz, Poland/Ukraine trying to find any living relatives and then returned to Shavl. She found that her sister and brother had survived as well. She left Shavl and went to Vilna, Lithuania and then on to Germany, where she was reunited with Joel in Munich. In June 1947 Nora and Joel arrived in the United States with their two sons. They lived in New York, then Florida and finally Atlanta, Georgia. Her husband built his own automobile servicing business and was very successful.

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  • Low, Steven

    Steven discusses his family in Berlin, Germany. He shares his knowledge of the journey his parents took with him from Germany to Shanghai, China. He remembers a comfortable life in Shanghai until the occupying Japanese forced them into a ghetto. Steven recalls a relatively happy childhood in the ghetto. He recounts experiencing fear during bombing raids and relief at the war's end. Steven describes leaving Shanghai for America and sailing to San Francisco, California. After the family finally settled in New York City, New York, Steven recalls his parents pressuring him to succeed at school and be bar mitzvahed. He describes feeling guilty at their admonishments for all that they had suffered and overcome. He also describes his feelings upon learning that his mother was really his stepmother. Steven discusses attending college and beginning his career. He reflects on traveling around the US and the world and then meeting his wife. He reflects on his desire to embrace his Jewish heritage and to reconnect with other Shanghai refugees. Steven describes his involvement with the Jewish community now. He recalls the separation between the Chinese and the Jewish population in the ghetto. He considers how fortunate his sons are to be accepted by their community and contrasts his family's experiences returning to Germany after the Holocaust.

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  • Lynn, Murray

    Murray Lynn discusses his life during the Holocaust in this interview. He starts with his life in Bilke, a small community that was originally part of Hungary and is today part of Ukraine, describing how antisemitism worked its way into his and his family's life. This antisemitism led to the disappearance and death of his father and the eventual deportation of his mother, three younger brothers, and himself to Auschwitz. He focuses on the brutal conditions of the camp and how he managed to survive when others did not. This leads to discussions of his relation to his faith, then and now, and how he's gone on in the United States to reconcile his faith and his past.

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  • Marcus, Gary

    Gary Marcus was born in Florida. Gary's father, Alan Marcus, was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1911. Lucille Selig Frank was Alan's aunt and the wife of Leo Frank. Sarah Selig Marcus was Gary's grandmother. Gary's father moved from Atlanta and relocated to New Jersey after the Leo Frank incident when he was a child of four or five years. He later moved to Florida. Gary learned of the Leo Frank case and his family relation to him when he was in high school. The Marcus family had owned Marcus Clothing Company, a prominent business in downtown Atlanta, and several clothing stores in Buckhead.

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  • Maslia, Victor

    Victor Maslia was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1928. Both of his parents were born in Turkey. His father's family arrived in the United States in 1939 from the Island of Rhodes. His mother's family traveled from Turkey to Havana, Cuba, before arriving in the United States in 1920. His parents met in the small Sephardic community in Atlanta and married in 1926. They had three sons, Victor, Albert, and Danny. His parents spoke Ladino and English. Victor was born at Piedmont Hospital. He grew up in the Jewish area around Central Avenue and Pryor Street during the Great Depression. The family attended Or Ve Shalom synagogue, a Sephardic congregation, that was within walking distance of their home. The congregation was located on Central and Woodward Avenue. His father had a shoe repair shop on Auburn Avenue. Victor belonged to the Jewish Educational Alliance. Victor graduated from Commercial High School in 1946. In September, he enlisted in the United States Army. In November, he was shipped to Korea, where he served for 18 months. He returned in 1948, prior to the start of the Korean War. On his return, he attended Emory University through the G.I. Bill, graduating in 1951 with a journalism major. Victor entered the real estate business in the 1950s, where he worked until he sold the business in 1980. Victor was appointed a city councilor for the City of Atlanta in 1988. Victor married Lenore Sater in 1950. They have four children and several grandchildren.

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  • Massell, Sam

    Samuel 'Sam' A. Massell, Jr. was born in Atlanta, Georgia on August 26, 1927. His parents were Samuel A. Massell, Sr. and Florence Rubin Massell. Sam was married to Doris Middlebrooks Massell. Sam and Doris were the parents of three children: Melanie Jacobs, Cindy Massell and Steve Massell. Sam remarried after the death of Doris, to Sandra Gordy. During Sam's childhood, his father was a partner in Massell Realty Company with brothers Benjamin Joseph Massell and Levi J. Massell. During the Great Depression, Sam's father left real estate to establish a law practice. Sam attended Druid Hills grade school and high school. He earned a bachelor of commercial science degree at Georgia State University and an LLB degree from Atlanta Law School. Sam's political career included serving on the City Council in Mountain Park, Georgia and on Atlanta's Board of Aldermen (now City Council). From 1970 to 1974, he was Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia, having been elected as its first Jewish mayor. Prior to that, Sam had a career as a commercial realtor. After his tenure as Mayor, he operated a travel agency and was the founding president of the Buckhead Coalition.

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  • Merlin, Bronia

    Bronia recalls her family and early years in Poland. She recounts the fear and violence she experienced when the Germans occupied Poland in 1939. She describes being forcibly taken from the ghetto to a labor camp. Bronia describes being sent from the labor camp to Auschwitz-Birkenau, surviving selections, and working in an ammunition factory. As the Allies advanced, she recalls being sent to Freudenthal, where the Russians eventually liberated her. Bronia outlines the journey to search for her family, which took her back to Poland and then to Germany. She describes coming to America, raising a family, learning a new language, and acclimating to a different culture. Bronia concludes by acknowledging her struggle to cope with loss and the joy that her family brings her.

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  • Miller, Sol

    Sol discusses how his grandfather, Louis Miller, came to Huntsville, Alabama after leaving Minsk, Belarus to come to the United States. He describes his experiences growing up Jewish in Huntsville. He also describes the early days of the Jewish community there in the late 1800's and the changes over time. Sol discusses the German rocket scientists, including Werner von Braun, who were brought to Huntsville. Their past was white-washed, and the community embraced them. Some, like Sol's grandfather, had a hard time doing business with them. Sol describes his awareness as a child about segregation. He explains the impact that NASA had on the peaceful integration of blacks, since the government threatened to move the location out of Huntsville if black engineers who were applying for jobs there would be segregated in restaurants, housing, hotels, etc. He talks about his family memories growing up Jewish in Huntsville, family holidays, and raising their own children there. Their children are now young adults, and he describes where they are now and what they are doing. It is unlikely either of them will settle in Huntsville, thus ending the long family history there. <

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  • Nathan, Betty Weinstock

    Betty Weinstock Nathan was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1921. She is the daughter of Jack Weinstock, owner of Weinstock Flowers. Her father immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1906 at the age of 15 years. He trained in floriculture in Germany. When he arrived to the United States, he worked in a greenhouse in New York. In 1909 he worked at the Pulitzer Estate summer home in Maine as the chief landscape architect and chief gardener. He also worked for Wadley & Smythe, a New York florist, before coming to Atlanta at the age of 22 to manage the Nunnally flower shop. In 1917, he started the family florist business, Weinstock's Flowers. Betty's mother was Paula Mayer Weinstock. They married in 1920, and Jack brought her to the United States from Germany. Betty married Morton Nathan in 1941. Morton served in the United States Army at the Army Exchange in New York. After returning from military service in 1946, Morton managed the Weinstock family florist business for 15 years. After her husband's death in 1980, Betty operated the family business until she sold it in 1989. The Weinstock Flower Shop was an Atlanta business for 75 years. The store front facade is now in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC. Betty attended Inman grammar school and Girls' High School. She attended Sunday school at the Temple where she was confirmed in 1936 by Dr. David Marx. She was also married by Dr. Marx at the Temple. Betty and Morton Nathan had one child, Lee Nathan Sheridan, and two grandchildren.

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  • Nathan, Sophie

    Sophie talks about life in Germany as a young girl and her goals for the future. She describes how life became progressively more difficult for Jews as Hitler and the Nazi's consolidate their power, the increased isolation she experienced at school, and the limited options available to her when she graduated. Sophie recalls Jews fleeing from Germany. She describes Kristallnacht and her father's arrest. She recounts working in Hanover when World War II breaks out and experiencing Allied bombing campaigns. Sophie recalls being deported to a ghetto in Riga, Latvia. She describes how life became more and more difficult. She recalls her father's experience in the ghetto hospital and his eventual death. She recounts the various jobs she and her sister worked. Sophie explains how she survived a selection and came to work for the army with her mother and sister. Sophie retraces the evacuation to Libau, Latvia and then to Hamburg and Kiel in Germany during heavy air raids as the Allies advanced. Sophie describes the brutal conditions they endured in Kiel before suddenly being evacuated. Sophie recounts the kindness they received when Red Cross buses delivered them to Denmark and a train and ferry carried them on to liberation in Sweden. Restored to health, Sophie describes the challenges of contacting family and finding work after the war. She explains how she, her sister, and her mother managed to arrange passage to the United States in 1946. In the US, Sophie maintained contact with other survivors. Sophie describes herself as a champion of Israel. Finally, she reflects on her feelings about Germany today, the impact the war has had on her life and her faith, and why it is important to share her story.

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  • Nikishin, Irina

    Irina describes her childhood as a relatively typical Russian working-class upbringing, however when she started attending school there were certain incidents of anti-Semitism especially from the other students. After graduating from high school Irina studied at the Foreign Linguistics Institute in Moscow where she studied to become a schoolteacher of English as a foreign language. When she was nineteen years old, she met and married her husband Vladimir Nikishin who was also an engineer. Her daughter Olga was born shortly after that. In 1978 she and her husband had made the decision to emigrate to the United States. After a long process she and the family were finally allowed to leave Russia and enter the U. S. Her parents, brother Mark and Mark's wife emigrated the next year. Currently Irina works as the Immigrant Resettlement Director at the Jewish Family and Career Services (the same organization that had helped resettle her and her family). She and her husband Vladimir (now known as Val) live in Atlanta While her daughter Olga lives in New York City.

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  • Orkin, Sanford

    Sanford opens with discussing how his family came to America and how his father got into the exterminating business. He also tells of how his parents met. Sanford then describes growing up in Atlanta, school, and then his experience in the family business. He goes on to cover his family and life after the company was bought out, and how the city, particularly the Jewish community, has changed.

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  • Palmer, Roslyn

    Roslyn Palmer was born in Bainbridge, Georgia, on May 4, 1952, to Bella Turetsky and Jacob Wolffe. Her mother's family was from Atlanta. Her grandfather came to Georgia to work as a route salesman. Roslyn's grandmother was from Poland. Roslyn's father, Jacob Wolffe, came to America from Romania in 1921 through Ellis Island. He came to Bainbridge to work at a cousin's downtown department store, and in 1949, he opened his own retail business in Bainbridge. Roslyn attended Bainbridge High School and the University of Georgia. After graduating, she returned to Bainbridge to work as a reporter and a salesperson at a local radio station. She has served 30 years as an elected official for city council as well as having served the Bainbridge community in numerous volunteer civic positions over the years.

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  • Pizitz, Michael and Richard

    Richard Pizitz and Michael Pizitz were the sons of Isadore Pizitz and Hortense Hirsch Pizitz. Richard and Michael were born in Birmingham, Alabama, where their grandfather Louis Pizitz founded the Pizitz retail store chain. Richard, Michael, and their brother Merritt succeeded their father Isadore as managers in the family business. When the Pizitz retail chain was sold, they remained in the retail business, acquiring and operating upscale apparel, cookies, and frozen yogurt stores.

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  • Platschek, Carlos

    Carlos Platschek was born Karl Gustav Platschek in Berlin. He changed his named to Carlos after moving to Atlanta. Carlos' family escaped Nazi Germany and fled to Uruguay when he was only nine years old, narrowly avoiding the violence of Kristallnacht. As a young man, Carlos embarked on a successful career as a textiles engineer. His employer in Montevideo, Sudamtex, paid for him to attend North Carolina State University. He met his wife, Evelyn, in Uruguay and they married in 1968. They have one son, Daniel. Carlos worked mostly in Uruguay and Venezuela, but he also traveled in a professional capacity to Taiwan, and Indonesia. In 1990, Carlos and Evelyn moved to Atlanta.

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  • Podber, Abe

    Abe describes life in his small town in Poland before the war. He recounts how difficult life became after the Germans occupied his town in 1941. He recalls spending a year in a work camp and then being sent to Stutthof, where he witnessed great brutality. He recalls the chaos before American troops liberated the prisoners. Abe outlines his time in a DP camp after the war and working for the US Army. In Germany, he married and was reunited with two of his brothers before immigrating to the United States. Abe is distressed by the recollection of his family’s murder and haunted by the murder of young children that he witnessed. Abe admits his reluctance to accept war reparations from Germany. His feelings towards Germany become apparent when he describes his son’s visit to Europe and his own disinterest in returning. Abe shares his perspective of Israel and its struggle with its Arab neighbors. In closing, Abe tells how happy he is living in the United States with his wife and family. He comments on the effect that his experiences during the Holocaust have had on him and how it continued to affect his life.

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  • Popowski, Henry

    Henry describes his family and early childhood in Kaluszyn, Poland. He talks about his work before the war and how he was recruited into the Polish army when the Germans invaded Poland. He describes life in the Warsaw ghetto, witnessing the ghetto uprising, his capture while escaping from a bunker, and the murder of other Jews caught hiding. He talks about his deportation to a series of concentration camps in Poland and Austria, including Majdanek-Lublin, Krasnik, Plaszow, Mauthausen, Melk, and Ebensee. He recalls brutal treatment in Mauthausen and working with the Polish underground while in Krasnik. Henry describes escaping from a bombing raid and becoming very ill in Austria at the end of the war. He recounts the disbelief and confusion within Ebensee when American troops finally liberated the camp. He describes how he came to work with an American field hospital and ended up as a leader of a Jewish community in Germany before immigrating to the United States in 1949. Henry considers his faith and how he has come to terms with the Holocaust. He discusses the creation and importance of the state of Israel. Finally, Henry explains his reluctance to share his story but his desire for future generations to learn from it.

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  • Reagan, Janet

    Janet's grandfather came from Lithuania to New York in the 1880's and became a peddler.Janet describes how her paternal grandparents ended up in Birmingham, Alabama, followed by her grandfather's three brothers. She recalls the various businesses that they started, including a pawn shop that grew into a sporting goods stores, a jewelry store, a clothing store, and a pharmacy. Janet speaks about some of her experiences during the Civil Rights Movement.

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  • Regenstein, Louis

    Louis discusses his early life, including recollections of the family business. He talks about his education and then his life as a lawyer. Louis discusses how the legal business has changed over the years and talks about colleagues he has known, particularly Harold Hirsch. Louis also discusses his involvement in various community interests, particularly art, which he collects. He also talks about his wife's family and his sons' families and their work.

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  • Rishfeld, George

    George Rishfeld was born Jurek Ryszfeld on April 26, 1939 in Warsaw, Poland. As the Germans invaded Poland a few months later, his father joined the Polish army while George and his mother fled east to Vilna. There, his family reunited but soon found themselves in German-occupied territory. Other family members were killed, but George and his parents were sent to the Vilna ghetto. Around 1943, the Germans began liquidating the ghetto. George was sent to live with a Polish family, who showered him with affection and hid him for the remainder of the war. Yad Vashem has since recognized the three members of the Polish family as Righteous Among the Nations. Meanwhile, George's mother endured life in the ghetto and his father escaped to join the partisans. As Russian forces advanced and liberated the area, the family was reunited again. After the war, the family was temporarily housed in a DP camp in or around present-day Lithuania. With the help of a family friend who lived in Brussels, Belgium, the family managed to immigrate. The family settled in New York City and struggled to adapt to their new lives. George's parents found refuge in an active social network of other Polish survivors while George struggled with his identity as a refugee. George completed his education and joined the National Guard in 1957. While stationed in the South, George witnessed the racism that had begun to broil into the Civil Rights movement. When his enlistment ended, George returned to New York City. He began working for NBC and trained to be an actor. Eventually, he married and began a career in sales, which took him to Los Angeles, California. George had two daughters with his first wife. After their divorce, George remarried to Pamela in the 1970's. While still in Los Angeles, George began publicly speaking about his family's experiences during the Holocaust. Later in life, his mother also began sharing some of her experiences. He and Pamela now live in the metropolitan Atlanta area, near their two daughters and five granddaughters. George continues to share his experiences.

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  • Romm, Mendel ★

    Mendel Romm, Jr. discusses his life growing up in Atlanta and how the city changed during his lifetime from a town where he could stand on a street corner and practically everyone who passed by would know him, into a booming city of millions. Atlanta history is woven through Romm's life, including the civil rights movement and antisemitism.

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  • Rosenbaum, Margie

    Margie Rosenbaum was born in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1925. She is a first generation American. Her father's parents were born in Poland. Her mother's parents were born in Jerusalem. Margie's mother, Rachel Sarasohn, arrived in New York at the age of 15 with her mother. Her father, Felix Shevinsky, came to America when he was 16 years old. Margie's father started working as a peddler before opening a store in downtown Birmingham. Margie's mother died at a young age when Margie was three years old. Margie was raised by her father and grandparents. Her grandparents were Orthodox and kept a kosher home.

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  • Rosenbush, Bert Jr.

    Bert Rosenbush Jr. lives in Demopolis, Alabama.  He relates his family's history in the town, his father's furniture store and funeral home and the Jewish community's contributions to the community.  He discusses his education and participation in Jewish activities.  He also recalls segregation and his family's attitude toward black people, personally and in their business dealings.  He reflects on the lack of Jewish presence in Demopolis today (he and his wife are the last Jewish people) and discusses the synagogue, B'nai Jeshurun.

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  • Rousso, Jeanette Cohen

    Jeanette Cohen Rousso was born in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1921. Her parents were Sephardic Jews who immigrated to Montgomery in 1912 from the Isle of Rhodes. Her father owned Economy Deli in Montgomery. Jeanette talks about the early Sephardic community in Montgomery and how life revolved around the synagogue. She also discusses the Civil Rights Movement and her relationships within the black community.

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  • Royal, Stuart

    Stuart discusses his family roots in Birmingham and how his grandparents on both the Royal and Friedman sides of his family came to Birmingham in the 1910’s.  He discusses their early experiences in Birmingham, what Jewish life was like for them in the early years, and their involvement in the Jewish community over time.   He discusses where Jews lived at that time and how the community moved to other areas over time.  He also shares his own personal experiences in the Jewish community and at Temple Beth-El as well as his observations during the Civil Rights era.

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  • Salloway, Ronald

    Ronald Salloway was born on December 14, 1948, in Sylacauga, Alabama. His grandfather, Hyman Goldberg, arrived in Baltimore in 1901 from Lithuania and began peddling in the south. His grandfather settled in Sylacauga, and in 1911, he opened the Sylacauga Cash Store. The store remained in business for more than 60 years. Several of Ronald's uncles also had general merchandise businesses in Sylacauga. Ronnie worked in his father's store as a child on Saturdays and after school. Most of their customers were from the nearby farming community. Ronald graduated from Sylacauga High School and went to the University of Alabama for his Bachelor's and Master's Degrees. He was not bar mitzvahed because he was not able to attend Hebrew school on Saturday. They attended Temple Emanu-El and later Temple Beth-El in Birmingham 50 miles away. During the High Holy Days, Ronald's family closed their stores and celebrated at Temple Beth-El. Passover was spent with family, and his aunt made Ashkenazi foods. Ronald was in the Cub Scouts and Boy Scouts and was on the swimming team. In high school, he would attend dances. After graduating from college, he started his own business in Sylacauga, Ronnie Salloway and Company. He met his wife in Massachusetts. They have two children.

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  • Sarnat, David

    David Sarnat describes his early years at the Jewish Community Federation of Cleveland and his 20+ years as Executive Director of the Federation of Greater Atlanta. He describes his work with colleagues in the Jewish community including Sidney Vincent, Judah Rubenstein, Hank Zucher, Sidney Feldman, Erwin Zaban, Betty Ann Jacobson, Bill Schatten, Barry Shrage, Bernie Marcus, Arthur Blank, and many others. David is interviewed by archivist Sandy Berman who worked with him at the Jewish Federation of Greater Atlanta. Sarnat and Berman also worked together with Jane Leavey to establish the Cuba Family Archives for Southern Jewish History.

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  • Schneider, Tosia

    Tosia introduces her family and describes her early years in Poland. She relates what she recalls about the German and Soviet invasions of Poland in 1939. Tosia describes how her family's life changed when the Hungarians and then Germans occupied her town in 1941. She recalls life in the ghetto and hiding during roundups, killings, and deportations. Tosia explains how her family was separated from her father, moved to another ghetto where her mother died, and then sent to a labor camp. She recalls random killings, which took her brother and a close friend. Tosia describes her mother's attempts to sneak her out of the ghetto and her refusal to leave. The interview ends with Tosia's reflections on the Holocaust.

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  • Schoenberg, Irving

    Irving Shoenberg was born on November 5, 1925 in St. Joseph Missouri, the son of Morris and Mary (Hochman) Schoenberg. He married his wife Ann in 1956 and they had three sons, David, Eric, and Jeffrey. Irving was active in ROTC while attending Central High School in St. Joe and entered West Point in 1944. He served his country for over thirty years in the U.S. armed forces beginning in the Strategic Air Command (SAC) in Okinawa during the Korean War. He was Legislative Liason and White House Aide under President Dwight D. Eisenhower and worked at the Pentagon for the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force. He later became Brigadier General as Director of Materiel Management at Air Force Materiel Command, Warner Robbins, Georgia. After his retirement in 1973, Schoenberg took a job at Abrams Industries in Atlanta. He was a division president for Abrams Fixture Corporation and ultimately became Executive Vice President for Investor Relations for the organization. After retiring in 1991 he conducted investor relations seminars at the Goizueta School of Business, at Emory University. Throughout his military career, and following it, Irving Schoenberg has been a patriotic and dedicated man. He continues to help others by serving on the board of directors/being a member of organizations including Kiwanis, Boys and Girls Clubs, USO, American Red Cross, Hillside Hospital, and others. Throughout his life, his commitment to his Jewish faith has been an important part of his own life and the upbringing he and Ann provided for their sons.

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  • Schoenfeld, Gene

    Gene introduces his family, the town he grew up in and some of the political changes that occurred in the region prior to World War II. He discusses the gradual influence of antisemitism and how his family was forced into a ghetto after Germans occupied the area. He details the selection and registration process in Auschwitz-Birkenau. Gene explains how he was transferred to the Gesiowka labor camp in Warsaw, Poland and then evacuated to Dachau in Germany. He chronicles his experience at the Muhldorf labor camp at the close of the war.Gene describes returning to Czechloslovakia and then escaping to the American zone in Germany, where he worked at Displaced Persons camps. He recounts his experience traveling to and being briefly detained before starting his new life in the United States. Gene shares his perspective of the lessons to be learned from his experiences.

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  • Selig, Simon Stephen

    Steve discussed his paternal and maternal family history in Atlanta and the early businesses of both of his grandfathers. He reminisced about his childhood, schooling, and friends, both Jewish and non-Jewish, as well as memories of his grandparents and other relatives. Steve spoke about his limited Jewish upbringing, which did not include rituals in the home or celebration of Jewish holidays. However, Steve knew that he was Jewish, and his parents taught him strong values and were charitable within the Jewish community as well as the general community. Steve discussed his involvement in politics, including his campaign efforts when Jimmy Carter was running for president of the United States and his years working in the White House during Carter's presidency. He described the start of a successful business upon his return to Atlanta and his entry into the family's real estate business. Steve shared his experience as chair of the 1988 Democratic National Convention in Atlanta, elaborated on the growth and success of Selig Enterprises, and described the growth of his leadership in the Jewish community leading up to his presidency of the Jewish Federation of Greater Atlanta. He discussed the three goals he set and accomplished as Federation president and why they were important, Steve spoke about his three children's schooling and upbringing, what they are doing professionally as young adults, and their involvement in the community. He also described his wife Linda's leadership in the Jewish community.

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  • Shelton, Thomas

    Thomas Shelton talks about his grandfather, Luther Z. Rosser, Sr. He describes him as a highly respected man in the family and the Atlanta community. His impression of him was that he was a kind, gentle man. He talks about his grandfather's legal work with high profile cases and the defense of Leo Frank. Thomas talks about family relations with the Hugh Dorsey family and having Christmas with them. Thomas talks about his grandfather's relationship as law partner with Governor John Slaton. Thomas talks about the impact of the mob scene during the Leo Frank trial. He tells the family story of the National Guard being called on the night Leo Frank's death penalty sentence was commuted.Thomas talks about other prominent figures involved in the Leo Frank case, his own legal background, and meeting Governor Slaton. He reflects on the reactions of and influence of the northern newspapers on the Leo Frank case and Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., opinion of the case.

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  • Sher, Martin

    Martin Sher's father, Morris Sher, came to Birmingham, Alabama with his parents and five brothers and sisters. Martin provides some background on how his grandparents came to Birmingham, Alabama with Martin's father and their five other children. He describes the family business that his father, Morris, started and how it began with Morris peddling clothing to customers on his paper route. Later he opened a store in downtown Birmingham selling clothing on credit which expanded to include appliances.  Martin describes some of his experiences during the turbulent 1950's and 1960's as they relate to store boycotts, church bombings and other turmoil

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  • Sherr, Saul and Alice

    Alice Sherr (née Bacharach) was born in Egelsbach, Hesse, Germany in 1931. In 1938, the family relocated to nearby Frankfurt after their home was vandalized the windows were broken and the fence was painted with the words, "A Jew lives here." During Kristallnacht their Frankfurt apartment was invaded and her father taken to the Buchenwald concentration camp. After his release her parents sent Alice to a children's home in Heiden, Switzerland in 1939. She would spend the duration of World War II in Switzerland. In 1947, being a war orphan, she was brought to America by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, arriving in New York where she had relatives. After some difficulty with her uncles, Alice relocated to Atlanta. She lived with a number of families while attending school on a Distributed Education program. She eventually met and married Saul Sherr, with whom she had four sons. Alice eventually became involved with a number of organizations in the community, such as Morningside Day Out, Cliff Valley School, and groups advocating for mental health rights and research. Saul Sherr was born in Szczuczyn, Poland. Overcoming anti-Semitism and immigration barriers, his family left Poland in 1937. They first settled in Pittsburgh, where he became a bar mitzvah, before moving to Atlanta, where they ran a store at which he worked. He met Alice outside the local library and offered to give her a lift in the car, which is where he got her phone number and that eventually led to marriage and four children. He later became active in the Muscular Dystrophy Association and The National Association for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression, helping to promote research and better integration of people suffering from diseases into society.

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  • Shubin, Marilyn

    Marilyn has a long history of volunteer work and has held numerous leadership positions. Her volunteer work began in Cleveland with the National Council of Jewish Women. She joinedHadassahimmediately on their arrival to Atlanta and served as secretary to the Atlanta chapter. She volunteered with the NCJW in the Atlanta area, and in 1967, Marilyn was elected as the president of the Atlanta section. In 1970 after finishing her term as president, she went on to the national board of the NCJW. In 1970, she began her professional life working for the Atlanta Jewish Federation. From 1975 to 1979, she was national vice president of the NCJW, which allowed her to travel all over the United States and Israel. From 1979 to 1994, she was campaign director for the Atlanta Jewish Federation. She went on to become the assistant director of the Federation. Marilyn was the lead staff person for the Mega Missions responsible for taking several hundred people to Israel on several occasions. Marilyn was asked to be on the Holocaust Memorial Commission that President Jimmy Carter had organized.

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  • Silbiger, Sam

    Sam introduces his family, describing his childhood and home. He describes the Oswiecim Jewish community's organizations, celebrations and relationships with Poles prior to the war. Sam reflects on his parent's high expectations for behavior, the life they enjoyed and his family's experiences with antisemitism. He recounts how life changed when the Germans invaded Poland and his family was eventually sent to ghettos and forced labor camps. Sam details his experiences in the Bautrupp-Saybusch labor camp and then moving from camp to camp along the route of the autobahn (highway) being built in Poland. He shares his sister and father's experiences in the labor camp. Sam remembers the brutality he endured in the Bergen-Elster labor camp. He explains how he was transferred into the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp system. Sam details his evacuation ahead of the advancing Allies through Dachau, Gross-Rosen, Buchenwald and into southern Germany. He describes liberation near Mittenwald, Austria and beginning the road to recovery. Sam explains how he already knew that some of his family had not survived. He talks about living in the Landsberg displaced persons camp and joining the police force and an underground Jewish organization. Sam describes training with the Irgun and the risks encountered on his journey to Israel in 1948. He details his experiences fighting with the army in Israel. Sam discusses the tensions between Jewish, British and Arabs in Palestine. He shares why he chose to return to Germany after being wounded. He tells about his father's recovery and the antisemitism he encountered living in Germany. Sam recalls marrying, moving to the United States and having a daughter. He talks about the challenges he and his wife faced in finding good wages and how hard they worked to save. He reviews the success of his sister, brother-in-law and nephew. He recalls his daughter's birth and the decision to move to Atlanta. He details his experiences opening a grocery store. Sam talks about his daughter's marriage and keeping kosher. He explains why he does not complain and the pressure he feels to be exemplary in his lifestyle. Sam mentions his interactions with other survivors and his thoughts about Israel today. He reminisces about a trip to Poland with his wife, daughter and son-in-law. The interview closes with Sam reflecting on details of his daily life.

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  • Singer, Ruth

    Ruth discusses her parents origins and growing up in South Georgia. Ruth describes Jewish life in Fitzgerald [Georgia] and nearby towns where Jewish merchants operated stores and businesses. Ruth says that there were only about 12 Jewish families living in Fitzgerald and nearby towns. Ruth tells about gathering together with Jewish families from nearby towns to celebrate the High Holy Days in rented space with her Uncle Abe Kruger leading the services as cantor. Ruth says there was no organized religious institution and no formal Jewish education for the children. Ruth relates how the Fitzgerald Commercial Alliance was formed by her father Elex Kruger, his brother Abe Kruger and a few other Jewish businessmen.Ruth describes how social life was limited to visiting friends and family and, as a teenager, going to the movies and to Jewish dances. Ruth mentions that she did not experience any antisemitism and tells how Jews participated in the non-Jewish community by making donations to churches.

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  • Singer, Sol

    Sol Singer was born on January 27, 1918 in Atlanta, Georgia. Sol's father was Phillip Singer, an immigrant from Kosow, Austria-Hungary. Sol's mother was Ethel Kolodkin Singer, an immigrant from Schatsk, Russia. Phillip and Ethel were married in Atlanta in 1917 by Rabbi Tobias Geffen. Phillip operated a retail dry goods store in Unadilla, Georgia, where Sol lived throughout his childhood. During his childhood, Sol spent summers in Atlanta with his maternal grandparents, Abe Kolodkin and Pearl Radunsky Kolodkin. In 1934, Sol graduated High School in Unadilla. He enrolled in the University of Georgia (UGA). He joined Tau Epsilon Phi, a Jewish fraternity. Sol graduated from UGA with a law degree in 1939. After Sol graduated, he married Ruth Kruger, whom he had dated when they were both students at UGA. The wedding took place in Fitzgerald, Georgia, Ruth's hometown, with Rabbi Edmund A. Landau from Albany, Georgia officiating. After their wedding, Sol and Ruth settled in Columbus, Georgia, where Sol opened a wholesale distribution business in partnership with his uncle, Charles Kolodkin. Sol had three children: Sharon Singer Norry, Alice Singer Shapiro, and Eric Singer. Sol moved his business and family from Columbus to Atlanta in 1962. He joined Ahavath Achim Synagogue (AA) in Atlanta. Sol was very active in Jewish education through the Atlanta Jewish Federation's Missions, Bureau of Jewish Education, and the Epstein School.

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  • Sloman, Rella

    Rella Sloman nee Solski (sometimes spelled Solsky) was born May 22, 1928 in Kovno, Lithuania. Just outside the city, her family owned a mill which was very profitable. Lithuania was occupied by the Russian in 1939 and then the Germans in 1941. When the Germans began their occupation, Rella and her family were moved into the Kovno ghetto where they stayed until 1944. In that year, the ghetto was evacuated, with most of the inhabitants were sent to one of two camps: Dachau or Stutthof. Rella and her family were hiding in a cellar when Rella, who became afraid they would run out of air and suffocate, began to cry, attracting the attention of the Nazis. Rella and her mother were sent to Stutthof. Her father, who blamed Rella for this discovery, she knew saw again; he perished in the Holocaust. Rella and her mother survived work details in Stutthof and were later transferred to Thorn concentration camp. She survived the camps with her mother's help and was taken to a hospital in Munich after liberation to be treated for tuberculosis. She went on to recuperate in Switzerland before she returned to Germany and married her husband, Bernard. Eventually, Rella and Bernard were allowed to move to the United States. They first came to New York before settling in Atlanta with relatives. There, they started a family together, eventually having three kids.

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  • Smith, Bernard

    Bernard Smith recounts how his family ended up in Atlanta, starting from his father's discharge from the Russian Army and his mother growing up in an English orphanage.; He discusses his father’s deep involvement in the community, as a business man and as a member of various civic institutions and charitable organizations.  He talks about his mother’s English sensibilities and how that affected the family.  Bernard describes his home life as warm and caring. Bernard details his successful business here in Atlanta and his involvement with various charities and clubs.  He tells how he was involved with booking entertainers for the Progressive and Mayfair clubs, which brought him into contact with agents in New York City and local elites at the Piedmont Driving Club.  He discusses his siblings and his wife and children and some of their accomplishments.

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  • Smithline, Cathy

    Cathy Smithline reflects on the impact the Leo Frank case has had on her family. She talks about her grandmother, Leo Frank's sister, who died when Cathy was one year old. She talks about her grandfather and recalls that he was very close with Leo in their younger years. She reflects that she knew her grandfather very well, but they had not talked about the case. She tells of the Frank family connection to Atlanta. She talks about her family not wanting to discuss the case and how she first learned of the case through a book her mother had given her when she was 16. Cathy talks about discussing the case with her grown children and their interest in it. She reflects on Leo Frank, the person, and his legacy in the family.

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  • Sondervan, Eli

    Eli introduces his parents and shares what he knows about his family's life in Amsterdam at the beginning of World War II. He describes his family's decision to go into hiding when deportations began. Eli recalls being hidden temporarily by a German woman in another city before his family fled to Belgium. He recounts the kindness of the Belgians who helped his family. After liberation, Eli considers his father's decision to return to the Netherlands. Eli discusses post-war Amsterdam and his family's efforts to reclaim their lives in the shadow of the Holocaust. Eli describes his move to Israel, meeting his wife, and his career as a journalist. He expresses his views on the Arab-Israeli conflict. Eli details his return to Orthodox Judaism and the prophecies that he believes exist in the Torah, which enable his understanding of the hardships endured by Jews and has helped him come to terms with the Holocaust. Eli explains his family's move to the United States and decision to settle in Atlanta, Georgia. Eli closes with a brief discussion of his children and his hopes for the future.

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  • Sosne, Zelman

    Zelman shares his impression of Vilna, Poland growing up in an Orthodox Jewish home before the Soviets invaded in 1939. He remembers the Germans invading in 1941 and creating two ghettos. Over the next two years, Zelman was sent to multiple concentration camps. When the Americans liberated Ebensee in May of 1945, Zelman says he was near death. Zelman immigrated to the United States in 1949 and settled in Atlanta, Georgia. He discusses being active in Atlanta's Orthodox Jewish community. He shares his familiarity with the rabbis from all the Orthodox congregations around Atlanta. In 1964, he married and started a family. Zelman reflects on the maintenance of his beliefs and passing on the Orthodox tradition to his two children. He describes his initial reactions to race relations in America and witnessing the civil rights movement. He shares his views about the current political, social, and economic climate in the US and some of his concerns about Israel. Zelman admits he does not like doing interviews or revisiting the past.

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  • Sotto, Eliezer

    Eliezer Sotto was born in Salonika, Greece on April 27, 1923. Eliezer discusses his family, and life in Salonika, Greece before World War II. He talks about how life changed for him and his family after the Italians invaded Greece in October 1940 and again after the Germans invaded Greece in April 1941, after which time, he and his brother were forced to hard labor.  His family was required to move into the ghetto from which he and his brother Isaac were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.  In Auschwitz-Birkenau he survived several selections and several more labor camps before his liberation. He survived the Holocaust and settled in Atlanta where he worked as a barber for 60 years.

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  • Spector, Rosalind

    Rosalind Belle Marcus Spector was the daughter of Harold Edward Marcus and Maxine Bear Marcus. Rosalind's paternal grandparents were Alexander E. Marcus and Sarah Selig Marcus. She was the only granddaughter of their four grandchildren. Rosalind and her brother Harold Edward Marcus, Jr. were confirmed at The Temple in Atlanta, Georgia. Rosalind married Barry Spector in 1961. Rosalind and Barry were the parents of two children: Harriette Lynne Raphael and Marc [Marcus Lee] Spector. Rosalind has been active in Ahavath Achim Synagogue, Brandeis University National Women's Committee, and Hadassah. Formerly a real estate broker, Rosalind resides in Marietta, Georgia [2017].

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  • Spiegel, Helen

    Helen was born in Nuremberg, Germany on July 19,1923, the daughter of Hans and Selma Wasserman. In 1938, Helen, her younger sister, and their parents immigrated to the United States and settled in Boston, Massachusetts. After finishing high school, Helen went to work in Galveston, Texas for a family friend. There she met another German immigrant, Frank Spiegel. Frank and Helen married in 1946 and moved to Atlanta, Georgia, where they lived with Frank's parents and raised three children. Helen was active in the Atlanta Jewish community, where her activities ranged from an early supporter of the Hebrew Academy; founding member of a new synagogue, Beth El; chapter and regional president of Hadassah; board member of the Jewish Home; and organizer of a homeless shelter for women. Helen eagerly shared her story with school groups all over Atlanta. In 1996, Helen was honored for her services to the community as a runner for the Olympic torch. Helen died in 2017.

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  • Spielberg, Gisela Meyer

    Gisela discusses her family's life in Germany in the early days of German National Socialism. She primarily focuses on her father's life for the majority of the interview, talking about her father's involvement in World War One, his run in with the Gestapo, and his metal business that he ran. She peppers his story with her own recollections of life in Germany as a schoolgirl and noticing the rising antisemitism around her. Her story continues with her family's escape to England months and weeks before the Second World War started. She also covers her family's crossing to the United States and how they finally settled in Atlanta.

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  • Srochi, Stanley

    Stanley Maier Srochi was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1926. His grandparents immigrated to the United States from Russia, Latvia, and Poland in the 1880s. Stanley's grandfather, Morris Srochi, settled in New York when he arrived to the United States before coming to Atlanta for a job as a baker. A year after arriving in Atlanta, he started the family bread business, Atlanta Baking Company. Morris Srochi had been a baker by trade as a young boy in Poland. Stanley's father, Abram David Srochi, was born in New York in 1887 and came to Atlanta with his father when he was three years old.

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  • Steiner, Andre

    Andre briefly discusses his background and where he was during the partition of Czechoslovakia in 1938-1939. He explains where he was working when the Slovak Republic began concentrating Jews for forced labor in 1941 and then deporting Jews in 1942. He explains how he became involved in setting up special work camps to help save Jews from deportation. Andre recounts his role in the Working Group to try and save more Jews from deportations in what was known as the Europa Plan. He concludes with satisfaction that 4,000 lives were saved between 1942 and the Slovak Uprising in 1944.

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  • Stern, George

    George introduces his family and their life in Belgium until the Germans invaded. He details his family's thirteen-month journey through Europe and Cuba until he and his family arrived in Nashville, Tennessee. He recounts his grandparents' experience during World War II. George shares his memories and impressions of growing up in Nashville during the 1940s and 1950s. He recalls his interests throughout school and his lifelong love of camping. George talks about his career as an attorney in Atlanta, founding a new synagogue, and his involvement in the Jewish Community Center. George shares how he met his wife and her experience during World War II. He discusses the role of the Holocaust in his life. George remembers his experiences with local Rabbis and youth groups and camps. The interview closes with George talking about his mother.

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  • Storch, Dora

    Dora discusses her family life, the arrival of the Germans in Lodz, and the persecution of the Jews. She describes the loss of her mother and brother and daily life in the ghetto. Dora recounts her deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau and the separation from her father and one sister. She recalls the persecution of Jews in the Lodz ghetto. She talks about being sent to Bergen-Belsen and the transfer to Elsnig at Torgau. Dora details the slave labor conditions she endured, how she escaped, and her liberation. She briefly recounts returning to Poland, marrying her husband and moving to Germany. Dora shares how she discussed her experiences with her children and why it is important.

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  • Storch, Marty

    Marty introduces his family and hometown. He describes how life changed during the 1930's and after the Germans invaded Poland. Marty explains how he was sent out to work building highways and how desperate he was to return home. Marty recounts how his youngest sister was killed, his family sent to the Lodz ghetto, and his father later killed. He outlines how he avoided a transport at the end of the war, returned home after the war, and was eventually reunited with one brother. Marty describes arriving in Auschwitz-Birkenau and shares some of his experiences there, including reuniting with two brothers briefly. He recalls his experiences and interactions in Gorlitz, Germany at the end of the war. Marty describes where he went after liberation and the process of looking for surviving family. He describes his interactions with the Soviets and Americans. Marty details his career and immigration to the United States. He reflects on his children and grandchildren. He shares stories of the people he has helped over the years or the students he has shared his experiences with.

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  • Strauss, Henry

    Henry Strauss was born Heinz Siegbert Strauss on July 14, 1928 in Alsfeld, Germany. On Kristallnacht Henry's father was arrested and imprisoned in Buchenwald for three months. As a condition of his release, he was required to emigrate and Albert left for present-day Zambia. In 1948, Henry and his parents arrived in the United States. They were reunited with Henry's brother and settled in Atlanta, Georgia.

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  • Struletz, Allan

    Allan talks about his paternal grandfather Simon Struletz. Simon was the first in Allan's family to live in LaGrange, Georgia. Allan tells how his grandfather Simon left his grandmother Ida and their son Isadore in Russia in 1909 and landed in New York City. He explains how Simon settled in LaGrange when he was traveling to Miami, Florida to find work. He stopped in LaGrange when he ran out of money. Simon started a shoe repair business in LaGrange, and later a scrap metal business. Allan talks about the other Jewish families living in LaGrange when his grandfather arrived: the Goldsteins, the Kaminskys, the Edelsons, and the Coolicks.

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  • Sugarman, Alvin

    Born and raised in Atlanta, Alvin Sugarman grew up in the West End neighborhood. He attended Smillie and Morningside elementary schools, as well as Grady High School. He went to college at Emory University before beginning work at the Montag Bros. school supply and paper company, where he worked as a salesman. After six years of sales work, Alvin Sugarman turned to work of faith. He was ordained by Hebrew Union College, and he eventually found work at The Temple-Hebrew Benevolent Congregation of Atlanta, where he became senior rabbi in 1974. From that point forward, Sugarman devoted his life to leading one of the Southeast's, if not the country's, most important and influential religious communities, earning several community service awards along the way. In this interview, Rabbi Sugarman elaborates on much of his life experiences. This includes his childhood in the Atlanta area, work as a salesman for Montag, and much elaboration on how he decided to pursue the position of Rabbi. In terms of his religious life, he covers his early influences, his time in seminary, and much of his early work as a rabbi, including work at The Temple in Atlanta, as well as at the federal penitentiary in Atlanta.

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  • Taylor, Esther Kahn

    Esther Kahn was born in 1905 in Atlanta to Janice and Marcus Kahn, both immigrants from the Bialystok area of Eastern Europe. Esther recalls her childhood in Atlanta and her growing interest and talent in playing the piano and her early musical education. Esther also discusses a series of topics including women's rights and changes in women's lives over her lifetime, marriage and changing sexual mores, drugs, education, music appreciation and music in the 1980, government, her travels in Israel, religion and history, and being Jewish.

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  • Taylor, Herbert

    Herbert discusses the background of his parents and his father, Charles’s, arrival in Atlanta, Georgia where he eventually settled into the bakery business.  He also discusses his religious education, Orthodox home, helping in the bakery and in his brother’s pharmacy, after getting out of Boys’ High School.  He recalls his social activities in the form of youth clubs, the Don’t Worry Club and other activities with Jewish youth.

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  • Taylor, Judith Grossman

    Judith Grossman Taylor was born in 1936 in Brooklyn, New York. She met her husband, Mark Taylor, on one of her many trips to Atlanta to visit her relatives, the Travises. Judith has been active in Hadassah, Brandeis Women’s Committee, United Way, National Council of Jewish Women, the Bicentennial Commission, HOPE [Help our Public Schools], Criminal Justice Coordinating Council, Child Advocacy Coalition, Leadership Atlanta, League of Women Voters, Atlanta Women’s Foundation, and the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum.

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  • Taylor, Mark

    Mark Taylor was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1928 to Herbert Taylor and Esther Kahn Taylor. Both of his parents were born in Atlanta. His mother is the daughter of Marcus Kahn, one of the founders of Shearith Israel. The Kahn family was from Lithuania. Hebert Taylor's family was from Russia. Mark's father's father was the first secretary of Ahavath Achim synagogue in 1887. Mark Taylor grew up in the Druid Hills area of Atlanta.He is an only child. Mark's father was a pharmacist and owned the iconic Plaza Drugstore on Ponce de Leon and Highland Avenue. Mark worked part time at the drug store soda fountain. His mother taught Hebrew and piano. He visited his grandparents for Shabbat every Friday. Mark attended Sunday school at The Temple and Hebrew school at Ahavath Achim. Mark attended Mary Lin Elementary School and Bass Junior High in Little Five Points. He attended Boys' High School. He received an engineering degree from Cornell University and a master's degree from Georgia Institute of Technology. He later studied philosophy at Georgia State University. He also attended law school in Atlanta. After World War II, Mark went into the construction business with his father. They built apartments, shopping malls, commercial buildings, and other large projects in Atlanta. Mark married Judith Grossman in 1957.

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  • Tourial, Ralph

    Ralph Tourial was born in 1915 in Atlanta, Georgia to Turkish immigrants.  He was one of three children.  His father, who owned a delicatessen, died in 1923.  Ralph became bar mitzvah on a Thursday morning at Or VeShalom, following Sephardic tradition. He became President of Or VeShalom synagogue in 1937. From the time he was ten years old until 1980 when it was sold, Ralph worked for E. Tourial Leather Company, a leather wholesaling business owned by his uncle, Ezra Tourial, until his death in 1941.

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  • Tourial, Regina

    Regina discusses her family and their move from Isle of Rhodes to Meridian, Mississippi and then Montgomery, Alabama. They moved to Atlanta after living in Montgomery for six months. In Meridian, her father was in the cotton business, but after moving to Atlanta, opened his own dry cleaning, hat cleaning and shoe shine business. Regina recounts growing up in Atlanta as a member of a Sephardic Jewish family. She discusses her family's activity at Congregation Or VeShalom. She reflects upon the synagogue's clergy, past and present, detailing their backgrounds and their journeys to Or VeShalom. She reminisces about the traditions and customs of an observant Sephardic family and her fears surrounding their continuation after her generation dies. Regina speaks about the extensive Sephardic community in her neighborhood and her mother's love of entertaining, no matter the occasion. Her father's his long hours at work made his involvement in the community prohibitive. She discusses her children, their education, and what they are doing at the time of the interview. After one of her son's went to college, she took a job with the Georgia State Legislature.

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  • Uhry, Alene Fox

    Alene Fox Uhry recollects nearly 100 years of Atlanta history, both of the Jewish community and that of the wider Atlanta area. She reflects on major events in Atlanta history including the Leo Frank trial and lynching, the publishing of Gone With The Wind and the excitement and glamour of the premiere of the film in Atlanta. She recollects her long career in the civic life of Atlanta, including the arts and cultural community, and other volunteer activities activities in social work. She covers the career of her playwright son, Alfred Uhry, with his success in Driving Miss Daisy and his other plays.

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  • Ulman, Boris

    Boris Ulman was born in Braslaw, Poland (now Belarus). His father was a business owner in the town. Boris had one sibling a sister two years younger than him. Boris was a teenager when the Germans occupied his hometown. Boris' parents and sister were killed when a local peasant denounced the family. Boris was not at home at the time. When the ghetto that had been established in Breslaw was later liquidated, Boris escaped and was hidden by a local farmer. After a few months, he returned to a newly established ghetto for Jews from the surrounding areas that had been brought into Breslaw. When that ghetto was also liquidated, Boris was sent on a train toward Ponary to be executed. When the train stopped in Vilna, he jumped off. Boris spent the next few months in the Vilna ghetto, smuggling guns into the ghetto for the resistance. Shortly before the Vilna ghetto was liquidated, Boris fled to the nearby forest and joined Russian partisans. He actively participated in partisan operations until the end of the war. After the war, he joined the Soviet army and served until 1949. Boris married another survivor from Braslaw, Taiana (Tonia). The couple had two children. In the late 1960's, the family immigrated to Atlanta, Georgia to join Boris' extended family. Boris died in 2006 and Tonia died in 2017.

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  • Vrono, Eleanor

    Eleanor Rothenberg Vrono was born in Atlanta in 1925. Eleanor recalls her childhood in Atlanta and her father, Jack Rothenberg's three dry good businesses (including 'Jack's' and 'Wells Fargo'), which prospered even during the Great Depression because his prices were affordable. She recollects some of the people who worked for her father including the future Dr. Irving Greenberg. Eleanor reminisces about her father who loved to play cards at the Jewish Progressive Club and his generosity in the Jewish community.  Her husband, Harold, was in the supermarket business.

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  • Walker, Ben

    Ben describes his early childhood, playing on the family farm and the relatively peaceful relationship between Jews and non-Jews. Life changed suddenly in 1941 when Germany invaded the Soviet Union and Ben recounts the fear everyone felt when the Jews in the area were marched to the local trains station and sent to a transit camp. He recalls life in the transit camp and being sent on foot to a camp. Ben details the starvation and sickness he witnessed and endured. He explains how he was sent to an orphanage after his father and sister died. Ben describes the improved conditions in the orphanage. He explains how he and his mother reunited and returned to their village after the Soviets reoccupied the area in 1944. Ben talks about how the family farm was collectivized and they struggled to survive in Romania's changing political climate. He considers the lack of Jewish resistance during the war. He recounts why he and his mother decided to immigrate to Israel. Ben reflects on life in the kibbutz and interactions with Arabs. He explains how he immigrated to the United States later, attended college, met his wife and became an educator. Ben shares his views on Israel and the changes he has witnessed over the years. He reflects on how being a survivor has affected him and his family. The interview closes with Ben's desire to bring more awareness to the impact of the Holocaust on Romanian Jews.

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  • Wallace, Elizabeth

    Elizabeth Slaton Wallace was born in Atlanta in 1928. She is the great niece of Governor John Marshall Slaton, Sr. He was born in 1895. Slaton served as governor of the State of Georgia from 1911-1915. His most notable act as governor was commuting the death penalty sentence of Leo Frank. Slaton was a partner in the law firm Rosser, Brandon, Slaton and Phillips. He later served as president of the Georgia State Bar Association.

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  • Weil, Alan

    Alan Weil was raised in Montgomery, Alabama, and his family has lived in Montgomery for several generations. His paternal and maternal grandfathers each owned retail stores in Montgomery. Alan discusses some background on his family's history in Montgomery, Alabama, as far back as his grandparents. He focuses on the retail store livelihoods of both his paternal and maternal grandfathers. The interview does not describe how or why his family moved to Montgomery or when they first came to the United States. Alan describes his experiences during the years of the Civil Rights Movement, the hiring of blacks in his stores, and the high percentage of black customers who frequented the stores. He was taught to treat others as he would want to be treated himself, and that's how he treated his customers and his employees.

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  • Weiller, Margaret

    Margaret Weiller was born in Atlanta, Georgia to Oscar Richard Strauss Jr. and Margaret Peggy Hirsch Strauss on November 10, 1933 at Emory University Hospital. She was a part of the fourth generation of her family to live in Atlanta. Her grandparents helped found the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, now known as the Temple and are buried at Oakland Cemetery.

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  • Weingarten, Helen

    Helen introduces her family and the region of Romania where she grew up. She recounts interactions with non-Jews growing up. Helen describes how her family was forced into a ghetto and then deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. She explains how she immigrated to the United States after liberation. Helen recounts how dramatically life changed as World War II began. She details the journey to, arrival in, and experiences of daily life in Auschwitz-Birkenau. Helen recalls Nuremberg and Melthauer the camps where she and four of her sisters were sent as slave laborers at the end of the war. She recollects liberation. Helen reflects on what religion meant to her during and after the war. She shares how she met her husband and came to the Untied States. Helen talks about adjusting to a new life, raising her children, and then moving to be near her children after retirement. She offers her thoughts on Germany, Hungary and Israel as well as why it is important to her to share her story.

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  • Weintraub, Frances

    Frances Sterne Weintraub was born in Albany, Georgia, in 1928 to Carolyn Gershon Sterne and Lee Melville Sterne, Sr. Her great grandparents were the first Jewish people to settle in Albany in 1845. Her mother is from Atlanta. Her great aunt opened a school for girls in Albany, called the Henrietta Sterne School. Frances' grandfather had a grocery store in Albany, and her father was in the food brokerage business. Frances has Confederate veterans in her family.

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  • Wexler, Sanford

    Sanford talks about growing up in the city with few Jewish neighbors, friends and teachers. He was active at the JEA, Jewish Educational Alliance. He played all sports, B'nai B'rith AZA, the Nathan Schultz literacy club and the debating team. He was most successful with basketball. Their team was undefeated and played against Georgia Southern, Georgia Tech and Clemson. He was not drafted into the military due to his poor vision, he was declared 4-F. Mr Wexler was the chairman of the lecture and concert series at the JEA, Jewish Educational Alliance. He brought in speakers to educate the citizens on Zionism such as Pierre Don Passen. He went on to become the Vice President.

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  • Wind, Josef

    Josef introduces his family and explains his educational and religious background. Josef recounts the abuse he endured from the Germans and their Ukrainian auxiliaries after World War II began. He outlines how he was taken for slave labor before being sent to the Lvov ghetto, where his family and friends all perished. Josef details the mass murders he witnessed in the Janowska labor camp as part of a special unit known as the Sonderkommando 1005. He describes how his unit was forced to remove and burn thousands of bodies from a nearby ravine and from other mass graves in the area. He shares how he escaped multiple times before always being recaptured and once only narrowly escaping execution. Josef shares how he was working as an electrician in a concentration camp at the end of the war. When the camp was evacuated, he recalls how he escaped and hid in the woods until the Russians liberated the area. Josef describes the antisemitism he encountered in Poland after the war, which prompted him to flee to Austria. Josef recounts marrying another survivor, living in DP camps, and working in an ORT school. He explains why he then chose to immigrate to the United States after reconnecting with and visiting two surviving his brothers in Israel. Josef explains how he has tried to come to terms with Polish antisemitism and share his experiences with his children.

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  • Yabrow, Irene

    Irene shares a brief description of her life in Lodz, Poland before she and her family are forced to move to the Lodz Ghetto. She was five years old in 1940 when they left Poland. Until 1945 she remained in Chimkent and Tashkent working in the coal mines and living in a hut with her family.In 1945 she and her family, now including the twins, return to Poland. Eventually their quota to go to the United States comes up and they take the SS Sturgis to America and settle in Brooklyn, New York. In Brooklyn she meets and marries Eddie, an American. Together they have five children. She expresses how she would do anything for her children and still does. One-by-one four of her children and eight grandchildren move to Atlanta, Georgia and she follows.

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  • Yamplosky, Vladimir

    Valdimir Yampolsky describes his life in Odessa between 1956 (the year of his birth) and 1989 the year he emigrated to United States from the Ukraine and eventually arrived to Atlanta with his wife and young son. Eventually he also sponsored his extended family's arrival to Atlanta (His mother, his brother and the brother's wife and daughter). He also describes the interactions between Jews and Ukrainians in Odessa during the years of his childhood and youth and many instances of anti-Semitism that he had encountered including mot being accepted into the Moscow Conservatory and having to enroll at St. Petersburg instead in order to receive an education as a musician. Currently (in 2006) Yampolsky works as a high school level music and orchestra teacher after ten years of playing as a violinist in the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra. He also describes the elation that he and his entire extended family felt upon being granted their US citizenship.

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  • Yudelson, Anne Spielberger

    Anne Spielberger Yudelson was born in Atlanta in 1901. Her parents were Julia Reisman Spielberger and Jacob Spielberger, who each immigrated from Austria-Hungary to New York City during the 1880's, married, moved to Atlanta in 1892, and operated a grocery store, J. Spielberger Groceries Meats. Anne had three brothers and four sisters. During her early childhood, Anne lived near Grant Park. She attended W.F. Slaton School and the Fraser Street School, and graduated from Commercial High. She was married to Solomon "Sol" Israel Yudelson, whose business Edward Shoe Stores eventually expanded to a chain. Anne and Sol were the parents of five children: Edith Yudelson Smith, Frances Yudelson Kuniansky, Shirley Yudelson Mosinger, Harold Yudelson, and Julian Edward Yudelson. Anne served as a vice president for Atlanta's Hadassah chapter, and both Anne and Sol were active supporters of ORT in Atlanta.

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  • Zaban, Erwin

    Erwin discusses his family background and how his father, Mandle Zaban, founded Zep Manufacturing.  He details the growth of Zep, its merger with National Linen Services and how it became National Service Industries, with earnings of $2.5 billion per year.  He also describes his lifelong friendships and business relationships with others such as Milton Weinstein, Meyer Balser, M. William Breman, Sidney Feldman, David Goldwasser, Bernard Marcus, Max Kuniansky, Barney Medintz, Abe Goldstein, Benjamin Massell, Sam Massel, Maynard Jackson and Steve Selig.  He touches briefly on the social life of Jews in the Fifties and Sixties in Atlanta, the cities growth and development, the civil rights years and on his philanthropic contributions to the Atlanta Jewish community.  

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